Sodium in Fertilizers

Sodium in Soils and Water
Sodium as an Essential Element
Beneficial Effects
  Growth Stimulation
  Interaction with Other Nutrients
Sodium in Fertilizers
Sodium Metabolism in Plants
  Effects on C4 Species
  Toxicity of Sodium
Intracellular and Intercellular Compartmentation
Sodium in Various Plant Species

Application of sodium to many crops has been reported to stimulate growth, particularly when potassium is deficient (15,101–107). This phenomenon has been documented repeatedly with Beta species (red beet, fodder beet, and sugar beet) (108–126), and in a range of other crops including asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), carrots (Daucus carota L.), celery (Apium graveolens L.), and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) (15,74,101,103,104,107,127,128). There is particular interest in sodium fertilizer application to forage crops, since animals require substantial amounts of sodium (129,130). Lactating dairy cows need a concentration of about 2 g Na kg-1 in forage (131). The problem is particularly evident on soils that are intensively managed and deficient in nutrients (132–134), although there are exceptions (135). Application of sodium fertilizer improves the quality of fodder crops and makes them more acceptable to animals (136–140).