Alldredge, A. 1976. Appendicularians. Sci. Am. 235
:94–102 (July). Describes the biology of
larvaceans, which build delicate houses for
Bone, Q. 1979. The origin of chordates. Oxford
Biology Readers, No. 18, New York,
Oxford University Press. Synthesis of
hypotheses and range of disagreements
bearing on an unsolved riddle.
Bowler, P. J. 1996. Life’s splendid drama: evolutionary
biology and the reconstruction of
life’s ancestry 1860–1940. Chicago, University
of Chicago Press. Thorough and eloquent
exploration of scientific debates over
reconstruction of history of life on earth;
Cellular Metabolism treat theories of chordate and
Carroll, R. L. 1997. Patterns and processes of
vertebrate evolution. New York, Cambridge
University Press. A comprehensive
analysis of the evolutionary processes that
have influenced large-scale changes in vertebrate
Gans, C. 1989. Stages in the origin of vertebrates:
analysis by means of scenarios. Biol. Rev. 64
:221–268. Reviews the diagnostic
characters of protochordates and
ancestral vertebrates and presents a scenario
for the protochordate-vertebrate transition.
Gould, S. J. 1989. Wonderful life: the Burgess
Shale and the nature of history. New York,
W.W. Norton & Company. In this section
describing the marvelous Cambrian fossils
of the Burgess Shale, Gould “saves the best
for last” by inserting an epilogue on Pikaia,
the first known chordate.
Gould, S. J. (ed.) 1993. The book of life. New
York, W. W. Norton & Company. A sweeping,
handsomely illustrated view of (almost
entirely) vertebrate life.
Jeffries, R. P. S. 1986. The ancestry of the vertebrates.
Cambridge, Cambridge University
Press. Jeffries argues that the Calcichordata
are the direct ancestors of the vertebrates, a
view that most zoologists are not willing to
accept. Still, this book is an excellent summary
of the deuterostome groups and of the
various competing hypotheses of vertebrate
Long, J. A. 1995. The rise of fishes: 500 million
years of evolution. Baltimore, The Johns
Hopkins University Press. An authoritative,
liberally illustrated evolutionary history of
Maisey, J. G. 1996. Discovering fossil fishes.
New York, Henry Holt & Company. Handsomely
illustrated chronology of fish evolution
with cladistic analysis of evolutionary
Pough, F. H., J. B. Heiser, and W. N. McFarland.
1996. Vertebrate life, ed. 4. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Vertebrate
morphology, physiology, ecology, and
behavior cast in a cladistic framework.
Stokes, M. D., and N. D. Holland. 1998. The
lancelet. Am. Sci. 86
the historical role of amphioxus in early
hypotheses of vertebrate ancestry and summarizes
recent molecular data that has
rekindled interest in amphioxus.