The arches are inside the garden and are often connecting the areas. They vary in sizes and shapes and designs. They are generally at the starting or end of paths. Generally climbers and twinners are grown so that they climb on arches framework. Thus the purpose is to support climbing plants.
Pergolas are a series of rustic arches embowered with climbers, pergolas should be erected in such a place in the garden that their design and existence harmonize with entire planning of the garden. Pergola may be simple or double. The materials used for making pergolas are brick, stone and timber, bamboo or iron poles. On main upright poles are supported the longitudinal and cross rails to provide an upper roof over which climbing plants can climb and form canopy. In public garden often benches are kept to create under pergolas a green sheltered seating area.
Generally climbers or twinners are used. Creepers when used are tied to the frame so that they can grow on support; if left to themselves they cannot grow vertically. Most of the climbers require strong sun-light for growth and flowering, while a few grow well in shade; e.g. Thumbergia grandiflora, Jacquemontia violaceae.
Some important plants for pergolas:
- Antigonon leptopus.
- Bougainvillea: The different varieties of Bougainvillea belong to three species, B. Spectabilis, B. glabra and B. peruviana. The colour of different varieties ranges from pink, crimson, mauve, red, purple and white. In double variety, which is due to bud mutation, have at the base of the bract have a little shoot bearing a variable number of smaller
bracts of the same colour.
- Ipomoea palmata - Railway creeper.
- Passiflora coerulea