With an ever-expanding urban population, the demand for a side range of processed and pre-cooked foods will expand, as urbanization leads to diversification of foods habits. The IIFS with its emphasis on crop-live-stock-fish integration responds to this challenge. Also, the emphasis placed on post-harvest technology in IIFS helps both producers and consumers. To sum up, IIFS involves a pro-nature, pro-employment, pro-women and pro-poor orientation to technology and
dissemination. It leads to labour diversification and not displacement. It leads to resource-based, in
contrast to the widely prevalent commodity-based, agricultural development planning, according
Dr. Swaminathan has prescribed seven pillars of IFFS for successful implementation of such systems. Soil health care is fundamental to sustainable intensification. In addition, vermiculture constitutes an essential component of IIFS. IFFS farmers should maintain a soul health card to monitor the impact of farming systems on the physical, chemical and microbiological components of the soil.
Water harvesting and management is the next crucial component. Crop and pest management including integrated nutrient supply (INS) and integrated pest management (IPM) systems form important components as well. Energy management and post-harvest component, choice of crops, other components of farming system and information technology are also important. These will help to ensure economic viability, environmental sustainability, social and gender equity in IIFS villages.
It should be emphasized that IIFS will succeed only it is a human-centered rather than a mere technology-drive programmer. It essence is the symbiotic partnership between farming families and their natural resource endowments of land, water forests, flora, fauna and sunlight. Without appropriate public policy support in areas such as, land reform, security of tenure, rural infrastructure. Input and output pricing and marketing small farming will find it difficult to adopt IIFS according to him. The eco-technologies and public policy measures needed to make IIFS a mass movement should receive concurrent attention. The programme will fail if it is based solely on a technological quick-fix approach.
On the other hand, it can trigger an evergreen revolution, if mutually reinforcing packages of technology, training, techo-infrastructure and trade are introduced, according to Dr. Swaminathan.
Ecological agriculture that effectively combines use efficiency of Input and economic yield maximization will begin to prevent the abuse of natural resources. On its progress depends the achievement of food security and sustainability of farming systems. Ecological agriculture will reactivate the fatigued green revolution to move forward through promotion of soil health, package of agronomic practices with each component a blend of tradition and modernity, and a policy to value each input based on its intrinsic worth free from subsidies.
There is the need to recapture local knowledge about framing systems. A synthesis of traditional wisdom and ecological prudence of topical agriculture with modern advances in technology will help higher use efficiency of inputs and sustainable crop yield maximization.
This symbolic of low input sustainable agriculture of (LISA) and sustainable agricultural research and education programme (SAREP) widely promoted in the U. S.