Although prokaryotic promoters vary considerably, two short regions are shared in common by most promoters. Aregion on the nonsense strand about 10 bp before transcription initiates (-10 sequence) has a consensus 5'-TATAAT-3' and another region about 35 bp up (-35 sequence) has a consensus sequence 5'-TTGACA-3'. A consensus sequence contains the nucleotide sequence most commonly encountered in a wide variety of promoters.
Most terminators at the end of a mRNA molecule code for a singlestranded region that folds on itself due to hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs and codes for a final region containing many uracils. The hairpin structure that forms interacts with the RNA polymerase and stimulates its detachment from the DNA . Some terminators require terminator proteins such as Rho (ρ) to be active (Figure 4-2d,e). These Rho-dependent terminators lack a poly-U region in the 3' end of the terminator. The NusA protein is another termination factor that apparently binds directly to the RNApolymerase and catalyzes its release when it comes to termination sites.
© 2018 Biocyclopedia | All rights reserved.