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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Genes & Genetic Engineering

 
     
 

Content

Genes : Nature, Concept and Synthesis

Chemical nature of DNA
  Chemical composition
  Nucleotides, nucleosides
  Polynucleotides
  Chargaff's rule of equivalence
Physical nature of DNA
  Watson and Cricks model of DNA
  Circular and superhelical DNA
  Organization of DNA in eukaryotes
Structure of RNA
Gene concept
Units of a gene
  Cistron
  Recon
  Mutan
Split genes (introns)
  RNA splicing
  Ribozyme
  Evolution of split genes
Overlapping gene
Gene organization
Gene expression
Gene regulation
  Transcription
    The lac operon (structural gene, operator gene, promoter gene and repressor gene)
Artificial synthesis of genes
  Synthesis of a gene for yeast alanine tRNA
  Synthesis of a gene for bacterial tyrosine tRNA
  Synthesis of a human leukocyte interferon gene
Gene synthesis by using mRNA
Gene machine
The PCR
  Amplification of DNA (melting of target DNA, annealing of primers, primer extension)
  Application of PCR technology



Tools of Genetic Engineering

Enzymes
  Exonucleases
  Endonucleases
  Restriction endonucleases
    Nomenclature
Example of some enzymes
  SI nuclease
  DNA ligases
  Alkaline phosphatase
  Reverse transcriptase
  DNA Polymerase
Foreign DNA
Cloning vectors
  Plasmids
  Bacteriophages
    Insertion vector
    Replacement vector
  Cosmids
  Phasmids
cDNA Clone bank
Gene bank (Genomic Library)
Electrophoresis





Techniques of Genetic Engineering
Gene cloning in prokaryotes
  Isolation of DNA to be cloned 
  Insertion of DNA fragment into vector 
    Use of restriction Linkers
    Use of homopolymer tails
  Transfer of recombinant DNA into bacterial cells
  Selection of clones
    Colony hybridization techniques
    In vitro translation technique
    Immunological tests
    Blotting Techniques
  Recovery of cells
  Expression of cloned DNA
    Shine-Dalgano sequence
    Expression vectors
Gene cloning in eukaryotes
  Plant cells
    Yeasts
    Filamentous fungi
    Agrobacterium plasmids
    Plant cell transformation
    Plant cell transformation by ultrasonication
    Liposome mediated gene transfer
  Animal cell  
    Animal viruses
    Electroporation
    Particle bombardment
    Microinjection
    Direct transformation
Site directed mutagenesis
  Methods of mutagenesis







Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

Cloned genes and production of chemicals
  Human peptide hormone genes
    Insulines
    Somatotropin
    Somatostatin
    β-endorphin
  Human interferon genes
  Genes for vaccines
    Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus
    Vaccines for Rabies virus
    Vaccines for poliovirus
    Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus
    Vaccines for small pox virus
    Malaria vaccines
    DNA vaccines
  Genes associated with genetic diseases
    Phenylketonuria
    Urokinase
    Thalassaemia
    Hemophilia
  Enzyme engineering
  Commercial chemicals
Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases
  Prevention of diseases
  Diagnosis of diseases
    Parasitic diseases
    Monoclonal antibodies
    Antenatal diagnosis
  Gene therapy
    Types of gene therapy
    Methods of gene therapy
    Success of gene therapy
    Potential of gene delivering system
    Future needs of gene therapy in India
DNA profiling (fingerprinting)
  Methods of DNA profiling
  Application of DNA profiling
    Genetic databank
    Reuniting the lost children
    Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc
    Immigrant dispute
  Hurdles of DNA profiling
Animal and plant improvement
  Transgenic Farm Animals
  Crop Improvements
    Transgenic plants
    Nif gene transfer
    Phaseolin gene transfer
    Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants
    Herbicide resistant plants
    Insect pest resistant plants
    Plant improvement through genetic transformation
  Crop Protection
    Use of antagonists
    Use of insecticides
Abatement of pollution

 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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