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  Section: Plant Nutrition » Other Beneficial Elements » Aluminum
 
 
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Indicator Plants

 
     
 
Content
Introduction
Aluminum-Accumulating Plants
Beneficial Effects of Aluminum in Plants
  Growth Stimulation
  Inhibition of Plant Pathogens
Aluminum Absorption and Transport within Plants
  Phytotoxic Species
  Absorption
  Aluminum Speciation in Symplasm
  Radial Transport
  Mucilage
Aluminum Toxicity Symptoms in Plants
  Short-Term Effects
    - Inhibition of Root Elongation
    - Disruption of Root Cap Processes
    - Callose Formation
    - Lignin Deposition
    - Decline in Cell Division
  Long-Term Effects
    - Suppressed Root and Shoot Biomass
    - Abnormal Root Morphology
    - Suppressed Nutrient Uptake and Translocation
    - Restricted Water Uptake and Transport
    - Suppressed Photosynthesis
    - Inhibition of Symbiosis with Rhizobia
Mechanisms of Aluminum Toxicity in Plants
  Cell Wall
    - Modification of Synthesis or Deposition of Polysaccharides
  Plasma Membrane
    - Binding to Phospholipids
    - Interference with Proteins Involved in Transport
      - H+ -ATPases
      - Potassium Channels
      - Calcium Channel
      - Magnesium Transporters
      - Nitrate Uptake
      - Iron Uptake
      - Water Channels
    - Signal Transduction
      - Interference with Phosphoinositide Signal Transduction
      - Transduction of Aluminum Signal
  Symplasm
    - Disruption of the Cytoskeleton
    - Disturbance of Calcium Homeostasis
    - Interaction with Phytohormones
      - Auxin
      - Cytokinin
    - Oxidative Stress
    - Binding to Internal Membranes in Chloroplasts
    - Binding to Nuclei
Genotypic Differences in Aluminum Response of Plants
  Screening Tests
  Genetics
Plant Mechanisms of Aluminum Avoidance or Tolerance
  Plant Mechanisms of Aluminum Avoidance
    - Avoidance Response of Roots
    - Organic Acid Release
    - Exudation of Phosphate
    - Exudation of Polypeptides
    - Exudation of Phenolics
    - Alkalinization of Rhizosphere
    - Binding to Mucilage
    - Binding to Cell Walls
    - Binding to External Face of Plasma Membrane
    - Interactions with Mycorrhizal Fungi
  Plant Mechanisms of Aluminum Tolerance
    - Complexation with Organic Acids
    - Complexation with Phenolics
    - Complexation with Silicon
    - Sequestration in Vacuole or in Other Organelles
    - Trapping of Aluminum in Cells
Aluminum in Soils
  Locations of Aluminum-Rich Soils
  Forms of Aluminum in Soils
  Detection or Diagnosis of Excess Aluminum in Soils
    - Extractable and Exchangeable Aluminum
    - Soil-Solution Aluminum
  Indicator Plants
Aluminum in Human and Animal Nutrition
  Aluminum as an Essential Nutrient
  Beneficial Effects of Aluminum
    - Beneficial Effects of Aluminum in Animal Agriculture
    - Beneficial Uses of Aluminum in Environmental Management and Water Treatment
  Toxicity of Aluminum to Animals and Humans
    - Toxicity to Wildlife
    - Toxicity to Agricultural Animals
      - Toxicity to Ruminants (Cattle and Sheep)
      - Toxicity to Poultry
    - Toxicity to Humans
      - Overview of Aluminum Metabolism
      - Overview of the Biochemical Mechanisms of Aluminum Toxicity
Aluminum Concentrations
  In Plant Tissues
    - Aluminum in Roots
    - Aluminum in Shoots
  Soil Analysis
References
 
Baker (328) proposed that there are three types of plant responses to increasing heavy metal contents in soil: (a) accumulators, where heavy metals are concentrated in above-ground plant parts; (b) indicators, where internal concentrations reflect external levels; and (c) excluders, where metal concentrations in shoots are low and constant over a wide range of soil concentrations up to a critical soil level above which unrestricted transport occurs. It might be expected that aluminum accumulators would be good indicator plant species; however, this relationship has not been found to be true. Truman et al. (14) reported that only a weak linear relationship was found between foliage aluminum concentration of Pinus spp. and exchangeable aluminum in soil. Even in controlled nutrient solution culture, foliar aluminum levels of red spruce varied almost fivefold at a similar solution of aluminum concentration (78).


An alternate method of determining the status of soil aluminum is to grow pairs of aluminumtolerant and sensitive genotypes of some common crops, such as barley or snapbean, then observe their differential responses. For example, shoots of the aluminum-sensitive 'Romano' snapbean showed a significant response to liming of an acid (pH 5.1) soil from Beltsville, Maryland, but those of the aluminum-tolerant 'Dade' did not; this dry weight difference indicated that aluminum toxicity was the main factor limiting growth (329). Sanchez (300) reported that there was a high degree of tolerance to acid (mostly Al) soil in many varieties of upland rice and cowpea. Such knowledge would be very useful in identifying and managing aluminum-toxic soils.
 


 
     
 
 
     
     
 
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