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  Section: Plant Nutrition » Other Beneficial Elements » Aluminum
 
 
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Soil Analysis

 
     
 
Content
Introduction
Aluminum-Accumulating Plants
Beneficial Effects of Aluminum in Plants
  Growth Stimulation
  Inhibition of Plant Pathogens
Aluminum Absorption and Transport within Plants
  Phytotoxic Species
  Absorption
  Aluminum Speciation in Symplasm
  Radial Transport
  Mucilage
Aluminum Toxicity Symptoms in Plants
  Short-Term Effects
    - Inhibition of Root Elongation
    - Disruption of Root Cap Processes
    - Callose Formation
    - Lignin Deposition
    - Decline in Cell Division
  Long-Term Effects
    - Suppressed Root and Shoot Biomass
    - Abnormal Root Morphology
    - Suppressed Nutrient Uptake and Translocation
    - Restricted Water Uptake and Transport
    - Suppressed Photosynthesis
    - Inhibition of Symbiosis with Rhizobia
Mechanisms of Aluminum Toxicity in Plants
  Cell Wall
    - Modification of Synthesis or Deposition of Polysaccharides
  Plasma Membrane
    - Binding to Phospholipids
    - Interference with Proteins Involved in Transport
      - H+ -ATPases
      - Potassium Channels
      - Calcium Channel
      - Magnesium Transporters
      - Nitrate Uptake
      - Iron Uptake
      - Water Channels
    - Signal Transduction
      - Interference with Phosphoinositide Signal Transduction
      - Transduction of Aluminum Signal
  Symplasm
    - Disruption of the Cytoskeleton
    - Disturbance of Calcium Homeostasis
    - Interaction with Phytohormones
      - Auxin
      - Cytokinin
    - Oxidative Stress
    - Binding to Internal Membranes in Chloroplasts
    - Binding to Nuclei
Genotypic Differences in Aluminum Response of Plants
  Screening Tests
  Genetics
Plant Mechanisms of Aluminum Avoidance or Tolerance
  Plant Mechanisms of Aluminum Avoidance
    - Avoidance Response of Roots
    - Organic Acid Release
    - Exudation of Phosphate
    - Exudation of Polypeptides
    - Exudation of Phenolics
    - Alkalinization of Rhizosphere
    - Binding to Mucilage
    - Binding to Cell Walls
    - Binding to External Face of Plasma Membrane
    - Interactions with Mycorrhizal Fungi
  Plant Mechanisms of Aluminum Tolerance
    - Complexation with Organic Acids
    - Complexation with Phenolics
    - Complexation with Silicon
    - Sequestration in Vacuole or in Other Organelles
    - Trapping of Aluminum in Cells
Aluminum in Soils
  Locations of Aluminum-Rich Soils
  Forms of Aluminum in Soils
  Detection or Diagnosis of Excess Aluminum in Soils
    - Extractable and Exchangeable Aluminum
    - Soil-Solution Aluminum
  Indicator Plants
Aluminum in Human and Animal Nutrition
  Aluminum as an Essential Nutrient
  Beneficial Effects of Aluminum
    - Beneficial Effects of Aluminum in Animal Agriculture
    - Beneficial Uses of Aluminum in Environmental Management and Water Treatment
  Toxicity of Aluminum to Animals and Humans
    - Toxicity to Wildlife
    - Toxicity to Agricultural Animals
      - Toxicity to Ruminants (Cattle and Sheep)
      - Toxicity to Poultry
    - Toxicity to Humans
      - Overview of Aluminum Metabolism
      - Overview of the Biochemical Mechanisms of Aluminum Toxicity
Aluminum Concentrations
  In Plant Tissues
    - Aluminum in Roots
    - Aluminum in Shoots
  Soil Analysis
References
 
Aluminum bioavailability in soils and toxicity to plants is difficult to quantify because toxic levels vary with species and even with cultivars within a species (82). For example, 1.5 µM Al3+ activity was reportedly toxic to cotton roots (294), and 4.0 µM Al3+ was toxic for coffee (32). For rice, an aluminum-tolerant crop, the critical Al3+ activity was approximately 100 µM (400).


Chemical composition of some soil solutions, including aluminum and its various species, is listed in Table 16.4 (294). Table 16.5 lists critical Al3+ activities, as measured by root elongation, for selected plants (401). In general, trees are more tolerant of aluminum than most agronomic crops (Table 16.5). For 2-year-old seedlings of Norway spruce, aluminum toxicity was not evident when Al3+ activities in soil solutions ranged from 7.7 to 64.3 µM (402).


Instead of using Al3+ activity as the sole indicator of phytotoxicity, Alva et al. (34) used the sum of the activities of monomeric aluminum species (Al3+ + AlOH2+ + Al(OH) 2+ + Al(OH)30 + AlSO4+). They observed 50% reductions in root elongation, relative to roots of plants not receiving any aluminum, as this sum ranged from 12 to 17 µM for soybean,<8 to 16 µM for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), <7 to 15 µM for subterranean clover, and <5 to 10 µM for alfalfa. Alternatively, Cronan and Grigal (390) proposed the use of calcium/aluminum ratios as indicators of aluminum stress in forest ecosystems.
 





 
     
 
 
     
     
 
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