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  Section: Plant Nutrition » Micronutrients » Nickel
 
 
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Nickel Fertilizers

 
     
 
Content
Introduction
Discovery of the Essentiality of Nickel
Physical and Chemical Properties of Nickel and Its Role in Animal and Bacterial Systems
  Nickel-Containing Enzymes and Proteins
  Essentiality and Function of Nickel in Plants
  Influence of Nickel on Crop Growth
Diagnosis of Nickel Status
  Symptoms of Deficiency and Toxicity
Concentration of Nickel in Plants
Uptake and Transport
Nickel in Soils
  Nickel Concentration in Soils
  Nickel Analysis in Soils
Nickel Fertilizers
Conclusion
References

Essentially under all normal field conditions, it is unlikely that application of nickel fertilizer will be required. Exceptions to this concept occur when urea is the primary source of nitrogen supply, in species in which ureides play an important physiological role (2), when excessive applications of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, or Mg have been made over many years (2) and perhaps also in nitrogen-fixing crops grown on mineral-poor or highly nickel-fixing (high pH, high lime) soils. In experiments utilizing highly purified nutrient solutions or tissue-culture media, supplemental nickel may also be beneficial. In all of these cases, the nickel demand is quite low and can be satisfied easily with NiSO4 or other soluble nickel sources including Ni–organic complexes (Bruce Wood, personal communication). In solution-grown plants and as a supplement to foliar urea applications, a nickel supply of 0.5 to 1 μM is sufficient.

Nickel is currently being applied to many fields in sewage sludge (48,69). In general, this usage does not represent a threat to human health, as its availability to crop plants is typically low. The total extractable nickel in these amended soils can also be controlled by selection of plant species and management of soil pH, moisture, and organic matter (65).



In recent years, a great deal of attention is being focused on nickel-accumulating plants that can tolerate otherwise nickel-toxic soils and accumulate substantial concentrations of nickel, up to 5% on a dry weight basis (70). Three nickel hyperaccumulators showed significantly increased shoot biomass with the addition of 500 mg Ni kg-1 to a nutrient-rich growth medium, suggesting that the nickel hyperaccumulators have a higher requirement for nickel than other plants (71). Considerable attention is also being focused on utilizing hyperaccumulating species for phytoremediation and phytomining, where they can be grown in a nickel-contaminated soil and then harvested and exported from the field. To date, however, this approach has not been successful owing to the small size and slow growth rate of many of the hyperaccumulating species. With a better understanding of the genetic basis of metal hyperaccumulation, it may be possible to transfer this trait into a fastgrowing agronomic species and hence develop an effective phyoremediation strategy.



 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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