are represented by the single genus
and species, Man, and they are distinguished from the Simiadae,
and especially the Anthropomorpha,
by the following
In progression on the ground, the erect posture is the
easiest, and no assistance is given by the arms, which are
shorter than the legs. After birth, the proportions of the body
alter in consequence of the legs growing faster than the rest
of the body. In consequence, the middle point of the height
of the body-which, at birth, is situated about the umbilicus-
becomes gradually lower, until, in the adult male, it is as
low as the symphysis pubis.
In the manus, the pollex is strong and long, reaching to
the middle of the basal phalanx of the index digit. In the
pes, the tarsus takes up half the length of the foot; the calcaneal
process is long, and expanded posteriorly. The hallux
has half the length of the foot, and is nearly as long as the
second digit; and its mobility in adduction and abduction is
slight, compared with that of the hallux of the other Primates.
Hair is more abundant upon the crown of the head; and,
usually, in the axillae, the pubic region, and the front part of
the thorax, than elsewhere.
In the new-born infant the whole dorso-lumbar region of
the spine is concave forward, and the vertebro-sacral angulation is slight;
but, in the adult, the spinal column is concave
forward in the thoracic, and convex forward in the lumbar
region, mainly in consequence of the disposition of the elastic
ligaments which connect the faces and the arches of the vertebrae.
There is a strongly-marked vertebro-sacral angulation.
Normally, there are twelve dorsal, five lumbar, five sacral, and
four coccygeal vertebrae, and the transverse processes of the
last lumbar vertebra are not expanded or directly connected
with the ilia; but, in these respects, variations occur.
The spinous processes of the middle cervical vertebrae are
much shorter than the seventh, and are usually bifurcated.
The breadth of the sacrum is greater than its length. In the
skull, the occipital condyles lie within the middle fifth of the
base, and the occipital foramen looks downward, and either a
little forward or but slightly backward. Neither sagittal nor
lambdoidal crests are developed, but the mastoid processes
are distinct, and generally conspicuous. The supraorbital
ridges are never so largely developed as in some of the Anthropomorpha.
The orbits and the jaws are relatively smaller,
and situated less in front of, and more below, the fore-part of
the brain-case. A spina nasalis anterior
is almost always
present; (The only human skull in which I have heen able to find no trace of the
existence of the anterior nasal spine, is that of an Australian, which, some
years ago, I presented to the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.) and, in
the profile view of the face, the nasal bones
project more beyond the level of the ascending process of the
maxilla than they do in any Ape. The palate is broader and
its contour more arched than in any of the Anthropomorpha.
Its posterior margin is ordinarily produced in the middle hne
into a spina nasalis posterior,
and the palato-maxillary suture
is directed transversely.
The distance between the zygomata is either less than the
greatest transverse diameter of the calvaria, or exceeds it but
little. The malar is deeper than the squamosal portion of
the zygoma, and the upper edge of the zygoma is but little
The post-glenoidal process of the squamosal is small, while
the auditory foramen is vertically elongated, its anterior wall
being more or less flattened.
The interorbital space occupies about one-fourth of the
interval between the outer walls of the orbits.
The planes of the orbital surfaces of the ethmoid bonea (ossa plana)
are nearly parallel with one another.
The symphysis of the lower jaw has a mental prominence.
The length of the cerebral cavity is more than twice that of
the basi-cranial axis.
After birth, no trace of the premaxillo-maxillary suture
remains upon the face, though it may persist in the palate.
The nasal suture usually persists, and the direction of the
fronto-nasal suture is nearly transverse.
The cranio-facial angle
(See p. 420 for the e
xplanation of this term.) does not exceed 120°, and in the
higher races of mankind does not go much beyond 90°.
The supra-orbital plates of the frontal bones project but
little into the frontal region of the brain-case, and they are
almost horizontal, instead of being strongly inclined upward
and outward, as they are in the Anthropomorpha.
plate is long and wide, and the crista galli
prominent. The capacity of the brain-case of a healthy adult is
invariably more than forty cubic inches, and may rise to more
than a hundred cubic inches.
The scapula is broad in proportion to its length, and its
spine cuts its vertebral edge nearly at right angles. The ilia
are very broad; their inner faces present a well-marked concavity,
and their crests an S-shaped curvature. A line drawn
from the centre of the articular surface of the sacrum to the
centre of the acetabulum makes nearly a right angle with the
chord of the arc offered by the anterior face of the sacrum.
In all the Anthropomorpha
this angle is much more open.
The tuberosities of the ischia are hardly everted. The
symphysis pubis is comparatively short, and the sub-pubic arch
well marked. The width of the whole pelvis, from one iliac
crest to the other, is greater than its height, which is the reverse
of what obtains in the Apes. The transverse diameter
of the brim is usually not exceeded by the antero-posterior
diameter, though the contrary proportion occasionally obtains.
The female pelvis is more spacious, and has a wider sub-pubic
arch than the male.
The proximal articular surface of the astragalus looks
almost directly upward, and hardly at all inward, when the
sole is flat upon the ground; and the lateral facets are more
nearly at right angles to this surface than in any Ape. The
inner and outer malleoli are stronger and more downwardly
produced. The calcaneal process is thick, strong, enlarged at
its hinder end, and not incurved inferiorly, but produced into
two tuberosities on which the heel rests. The form and disposition
of the astragalar, navicular, and calcaneo-cuboid
articulations are such that the distal moiety of the tarsus is
capable of only a slight rotatory motion upon the proximal
The distal articular surface of the ento-cuneiform bone is
very nearly flat, though it has a slight convexity from side to
side, and is irregularly concavo-convex, from above downward.
The comparatively slight mobility of the metatarsal bone of
the hallux arises partly from this circumstance, partly from
the fact that the proximal articular surfaces of the four outer
metatarsal bones are not perpendicular to the axis of those
bones, but are obliquely truncated, from the tibial side, backward,
to the fibular side. Hence the four outer metatarsal
bones, instead of diverging widely from the hallux as they
would do if their axis were perpendicular to the distal facets
of the meso- and ento-cuneiform and cuboid bones, take a direction
more nearly parallel with the metatarsal of the hallux,
and the base of the second metatarsal, as it were, blocks the
latter, in adduction. The hallux thus loses most of its prehensile
functions; but, in exchange, it plays an important
part in supporting the weight of the body, which, in the erect
position, falls on three parts of the pes; namely, the heel, the
outer edge, and the integumentary pad which stretches beneath
the metatarso-phalangeal articulations, from the hallux
to the fifth digit.
In the infant, the sole naturally turns inward, and the
digits (especially the hallux) retain much of their mobility.
The only muscles which exist in Man, but have not yet
been found in any Ape, are the extensor primi internodi pollicis
and the peronaeus tertius.
The only pecuharities in the origin of muscles which ordinarily
obtain in Man, and have not yet been found in the Apes,
are—the complete separation of the flexor pollicis longus
the flexor digitorum perforans;
the presence of a tibial, as well
as of a fibular, origin of the soleus;
the origin of all four heads
oi the flexor brevis digitoruim pedis
from the calcaneum; the
origin of the fibula interosseus
of the second digit of the pes
from the middle metatarsal, on the dorsal side of the tibial interosseus
of the middle digit. The result of the last-mentioned
arrangement is that the second digit of the pes has
two "dorsal" interossei, like the third digit of the manus. In
the Apes the interossei
of the second digit are generally arranged
in the same way in both manus and pes.
The tendons of the flexor hallucis longus
and flexor digitorum
are usually more closely connected in the
sole of the foot in Man, than in the Anthropomorpha.
it is to be noted that all the apparently distinctive peculiarities
of the myology of the Anthropomorpha
are to be met
with, occasionally, as varieties in Man.
In the brain of Man, the only distinctive features, apart
from its absolute size (55 to 115 cubic inches), are the filling
up of the occipito-temporal fissure; the greater complexity
and less symmetry of the other sulci and gyri; the less excavation
of the orbital face of the frontal lobe; and the larger
size of the cerebral hemispheres, as compared with the cerebellum
and the cerebral nerves.
There is no diastema, though the summits of the canines
project, slightly, beyond the level of the other teeth. The
premolars have not more than two roots, and the anterior edge
of the crown of the anterior lower premolar is not prolonged
and sharp. The permanent canine tooth emerges before the
The penis is devoid of a bone (though a prismatic cartilaginous
body has occasionally been found in the centre of the
gians), and its glans has a different shape from that of any of
The vulva looks downward and forward,
and the clitoris is comparatively small.
The changes in the proportions of the different parts of the
body, at different periods of intra-and extra-uterine life, are
very remarkable. In a foetus an inch and a half long, from the
vertex to the heel, the head takes up from one-third to onefourth
of the entire length. The arms and legs are of about
the same length, and are shorter than the spine. The forearm
is about as long as the upper arm, and the leg as the thigh.
The manus and pes are very similar in size and form; and
neither pollex, nor hallux, are so different from the other digits
as at later periods. In a foetus rather more than five inches
high, the head occupies a fourth of the entire height; the
arms are longer than the spine by one-sixth of their whole
length, and are a little longer than the legs. The forearm is
about as long as the upper arm, and the thigh is a little longer
than the leg. The manus and pes are about equal in length.
In a foetus eight and a half inches high, the head measures less
than a fourth of the whole height; the arms are longer than
the spine by a fourth of their whole length, and they are longer
than the legs. The extremities of the digits reach down to
the knee when the body is erect.
At full term, the height of the head of the human foetus
is rather less than a fourth that of the whole body, and the
legs are longer than the arms. The arm is longer than the
forearm and the thigh than the leg. The hands and the feet
are still about equal in length.
Thus it would appear that, while the head grows more
slowly than the rest of the body, throughout the period of gestation,
after the embryo has attained more than two inches in
length; the arms grow proportionally quicker than the body
and legs, in the middle of gestation, when the proportions
most nearly resemble those of the Anthropomorpha.
latter part of the period of gestation the legs gain on the arms,
and the proximal segments of the limbs on the distal ones.
After birth these changes are continued. The adult has, on
the average, three and a half times the height of the new-born
child, and his arms are elongated in the same proportion.
But the head is only twice as large, while the legs of the adult
are five times as long as those of the child. At all ages after
birth, the distance between the extremities of the digits of
the outstretched arms is equal to the height in average Europeans.
Sexual differences, independent of the genitalia, are perceptible
at birth; and the female infant is, as a rule, slightly
smaller than the male. These differences become more marked
at, and subsequent to, puberty; and are seen in the smaller
stature of the female, the larger size of the head in proportion
to the stature, the shorter thorax, the longer abdomen, and the
shorter legs; so that the middle point of the stature of the female
is nearer the umbilicus than in the male. The hips are
wider in proportion to the shoulders, whence the femora are
more oblique. The ridges and muscular processes of all the
bones are less marked, and the frontal contour of the skull is
more sharply angulated. When the peculiarities of the female
sex are not connected with reproduction, they may be said to
The different persistent modifications or "races" of mankind
present a very considerable amount of variation in their
anatomical characteristics. The color of the skin varies from
a very pale reddish brown-of the so-called "white" races
through all shades of yellow and red brovvns, to olive and
chocolate, which may be so dark as to look black.
The hair differs much in its character, having sometimes a
circular, sometimes an oval or flattened transverse section, and
presenting all varieties, from extreme length and straightness
to short, crisp wool.
The hair on the scalp is longer than that elsewhere; and
it is very often, but not always, longer in the female. Hair
upon the face and body is scanty in most races, and almost
absent, except in the eyebrows, in some; but in others it becomes
greatly developed over the lips, chin, and sides of the
face, on the thorax, abdomen, and pubes, in the axillae, and
sometimes, though more rarely, upon the rest of the body and
limbs. When hair is developed upon the limbs the points of
the hairs of the arm and forearm slope toward the elbow, and
those of the leg and thigh away from the knee, as in the Anthropomorpha.
Enormous accumulations of fat take place upon the buttocks
of the Bosjesmen, especially in the females; and the
nymphae of these and some other Negroid tribes become greatly
It appears in some of the lower races, e. g., Negroes and
Australians, the forearm and hand, and the foot and leg, are
often longer in proportion than in Europeans. From not
wearing shoes, the hallux is much more movable in these
races, and the foot is commonly employed for prehension.
There is no proof of what is so commonly asserted, that
the heel is longer, in proportion to the foot in Negroes.
The spines of the middle cervical vertebrae sometimes
cease, more or less completely, to be bifurcated in the lower
races. Thirteen pair of ribs are sometimes present, and occasionally
there is a sixth lumbar vertebra. There may be one
more sacral vertebra than the normal number; and a modification
of the last lumbar, so that it resembles a sacral vertebra,
and becomes connected with the ilia, seems to be more
common in Australians and Bushmen than in other stocks.
In the lower races, the male pelvis is less in many of its
dimensions, and seems to differ more from the female, especially
in the tendency to equality of the transverse and anteroposterior
diameters of the brim, and the narrowness of the intersciatic
diameter, than in the higher races. This is particularly
obvious among the Australians. The antero-posterior
diameter of the brim of the pelvis is occasionally greater
than the transverse, and this variety would seem to be commoner
among the Bushwomen of South Africa than elsewhere.
But it is in the skull that the different races of mankind
present the most striking osteological differences. The proportions of the
antero-posterior and the transverse dimensions
of the brain-case vary extremely. Taking the antero-posterior
diameter as 100, the transverse diameter varies from 98, or 99,
to 62. The number which thus expresses the proportion of
the transverse to the longitudinal diameter of the brain-case
is called the cephalic index.
Those people who possess crania
with a cephalic index of 80 and above are called brachycephali;
those with a lower index are dolichocephali.
brain-case also varies greatly in its relative height. The proportion
of the length of the cerebral chamber to the basicranial
axis (as 100) may rise to 270 in the higher, and sink to 230 in
the lower races; and there are great diversities in the extent
to which the cerebral cavity is rotated backward or forward
upon this axis. The position and the aspect of the occipital
foramen vary considerably, as does the plane of that part
of the squama occipitis
which lies above the superior semicircular
ridge. The supra-ciliary ridges vary greatly in their
development, and in the extension of the frontal sinuses into
them. They are nearly or quite solid in many Australian skulls.
In the size, form, and disposition of the facial bones, the
different races of mankind present great diversities. A line
drawn from the anterior extremity of the premaxilla to the
anterior extremity of the basicranial axis, may be taken to
represent the facial axis,
and the angle included between
these two is the craniofacial angle.
It varies with the extent
to which the face lies in front of, or below, the anterior end of
the cranium, from less than 90° to 120°. "When it is great,
the face is prognathous;
when it is small, the face is orthognathous.
This is the fundamental condition of prognathism
A secondary condition is the form of the
alveolar portion of the upper jaw, which, so far as it is vertical,
tends toward orthognathism; but, so far as it is oblique
and produced, tends to prognathism.
The arch formed by the teeth is, in the most orthognathous
races, wide and evenly rounded; while, in the most
prognathous, it is prolonged, and its sides are nearly parallel.
The teeth themselves are much larger, the roots of the premolars
and molars more distinct, and the hindermost molar
not so small relatively to the others, in some of the lower
races, notably the Australians.
The mental prominence may project beyond the line of
the vertical alveolar margin of the mandible, in the higher
races, or it may be almost obsolete, and the alveolar margin
may be greatly inclined forward, in the lower.
The different races of mankind are divisible into two
primary divisions; the Ulotrichi,
with crisp or woolly hair,
nnd the Leiotrichi,
with smooth hair.
The color of the Ulotrichi
varies from yellow-brown to
the darkest hue known among men. The hair and eyes are
normally dark, and, with only a few exceptions (among the
Andaman Islanders), they are dolichocephali.
and Bushmen of ultra-Saharal Africa, and the Negritos of the
Malay peninsula and archipelago, and of the Papuan Islands,
are the members of this Negroid
are divisible into-
1. The Australioid
group, with dark skin, hair, and eyes,
wavy black hair, and eminently long, prognathous skulls,
with well-developed brow-ridges, who are found in Australia
and in the Dekhan. The ancient Egyptians appear to me to
have been a modification of this race.
2. The Mongoloid
group, with, for the most part, yellow-ish-
brown, or reddish-brown, skins and dark eyes, the hair
being long, black, and straight. Their skulls range between
the extremes of dolichocephaly and those of brachycephaly.
These are the Mongol, Tibetan, Chinese, Polynesian, Esquimaux,
and American races.
3. The Xanthochroic
group, with pale skins, blue eyes,
and abundant fair hair. Their skulls, like those of the Mongoloid
group, range between the extremes of dolichocephaly and
brachycephaly. The Slavonians, Teutons, Scandinavians, and
the fair Celtic-speaking people are the chief representatives
of this division; but they extend into North Africa and Western
4. The dark whites, or Melanochroi;
people, with dark hair and eyes, and generally long, but
sometimes broad skulls. These are the Iberians and "black
Celts" of Western Europe, and the dark-complexioned
white people of the shores of the Mediterranean, Western
Asia, and Persia. I am disposed to think that the Melanochroi are not a distinct
group, but result from the mixture of
Australioids and Xanthochroi.
Fossil remains of Men or implements of human manufacture
have hitherto been found only in late Tertiary (Quaternary) deposits, and in caves,
mingled with the remains of animals which lived during the glacial epoch.