In this order the
bead, relatively to the body, is of moderate or small size; and
hair is abundant.
The cervical vertebrae are free and unanchylosed, and their
centra are elongated. The odontoid process of the second is
well developed. The dorso-lumbar vertebrae are almost always
twenty in number, rarely twenty-one or nineteen. The number
of dorsal and lumbar vertebra, respectively, varies between
sixteen dorsal and four lumbar, and thirteen dorsal and
seven lumbar. The dorso-lumbar vertebrae are always articulated
together by their zygapophyses, and there is a complete
The sternebrae are numerous and laterally compressed.
In the skull the nasal bones are well developed, and have
the ordinary form. When supraorbital enlargements of the
frontal exist, they are of moderate size. The parietals unite
in a long sagittal suture. The orbit and the temporal fossa
communicate freely, the posterior boundary of the orbit never
being completed by bone. The jugal bone is large and unites
by a broad surface with the maxilla. There is a distinct
coronoid process, and the long axis of the articular surface
which receives the head of the mandible is transverse.
The hyoid has a small body and many-jointed anterior
Both pairs of limbs are fully developed, and the tail is not
provided with a horizontal fin. Clavicles may be absent, and,
when ossified, they do not occupy more than half the interval
between the acromion and the sternum. The scapula has a
distinct spine, and a large supra-spinous fossa.
Neither the hallux nor the pollex is opposable. The carpal
and tarsal bones have the ordinary number and arrangement; except that, in
the carpus, the scaphoid
united into one bone. The terminal phalanges of the digits,
which never fall below four in number, are almost always
provided with sharp and pointed claws.
The teeth are always distinguishable into incisors, canines,
and molars; they are lodged in distinct sockets, and their
crowns are covered with enamel. There are always two sets
of teeth, a milk and a permanent dentition. As a very general
rule, there are six incisors above and an equal number below.
The canines are long, curved, and pointed.
The stomach is simple and undivided, and the caecum,
which is never large, may be altogether absent.
The liver is deeply subdivided, and there is a gall-bladder.
In the brain, the cerebellum is never completely covered by
the cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a large
corpus callosum, and, except in the aquatic forms, by a welldeveloped
anterior commissure. On the exterior of each
hemisphere, there are usually three distinct convolutions surrounding
the Sylvian fissure. But, in the aquatic Carnivora
the gyri are much more numerous and complicated; the cerebral
hemispheres are much broader and longer in proportion
to the length of the brain; and they may even exhibit a rudiment
of the posterior cornu. In all these respects they approach
The inferior turbinal bones are always large and have a
There are no vesiculae seminales, and an os penis
generally present. The ovary is enclosed in a peritoneal sac.
are divisible into the Pinnipedia
, or aquatic Carnivores
; and the Fissipedia
, which are mainly terrestrial
In the Fissipedia
the incisors are, with one exception
. the Sea-otter, with i.
3.3/2.2), six in number in each jaw.
The hind-limbs have the position usual in mammals, and
the tail is free to its root. The pinna of the ear is fully developed.
The middle, or outermost, digits of the pes are longest, the hallux being shorter than the others.
|Fig. 107. - The skeleton of Lion (Felis Leo)
Almost invariably, the distal phalanges of both limbs are
provided with claws; and, in the most thoroughly carnivorous
forms, these claws are very strong, curved, and pointed. Tha
phalanx which supports the claw has a similar form, and a
plate of bone rises from its base as a short sheath. An elastic
ligament connects the base of the ungual phalanx with the
middle phalanx, so that, when the flexor profundus digitorum
is not in action, the ungual phalanx is pulled back upon the
middle phalanx, and the claw which it bears is retracted into
an integumentary sheath.
The olfactory lobes are usually large and the cerebral hemispheres
As the Dog (Canis familiaris
) is an excellent and easily
accessible example of a fissipede carnivore, it may be useful to
mention some of the more important points in its anatomy.
The vertebral column contains twenty dorso-lumbar vertebra,
of which thirteen are dorsal and seven lumbar, three
sacral, and eighteen to twenty-two caudal vertrebrae. The
atlas has broad and rounded alae, the anterior margins of
which are deeply excavated near the roots. The posterior
edge of the spinous process of the axis vertebra is almost perpendicular
and very thick.
Nine pairs of ribs are usually connected by sterno-costal
cartilages vdth the sternum, which is composed of eight laterally-
compressed stenebrae. Only two of the three anchylosed
sacral vertebrae articulate with the ilia.
As in the Carnivora
in general, the occipital foramen is
placed at the posterior end of the skull, and looks almost
directly backward. The sagittal and lambdoidal crests are
greatly developed and meet in a prominent occipital spine;
the zygomata are very wide and arched outward; and the
coronoid process of the mandible is very large. The size of
these parts is in relation to the magnitude of the muscles of
the neck and jaws.
The ramus of the mandible is nearly straight, the proper
angle of the jaw being obsolete. A supra-angular process
projects outward from the ascending portion of the ramus,
and takes the place of the proper angle. The articular
condyle is much elongated transversely, narrow and convex
from before backward; and the pre-and post-glenoidal processes
of the squamosal are produced downvrard so as to
convert the joint into a complete ginglymus and to restrict
the motion of the jaw to the vertical plane. The supra-orbital
processes of the frontals are small and pointed. The root of
the alisphenoid is traversed by a longitudinal canal. The tympanum
is bounded below by a convex osseous wall, which is
termed the bulla.
It opens externally by the short external
meatus, at the inner end of which is a circular elevation for
the attachment of the tympanic membrane. A short distance
internal to this frame for the membrane of the drum, a low
crest rises from the floor of the bulla and imperfectly divides
it into an outer and anterior portion which communicates
with the Eustachian tube, and an inner blind spheroidal cavity
which occupies the greater part of the bulla. The part of the
bulla which forms the floor of this cavity is the result of the
ossification of a process of the periotic cartilage, while the
other part is furnished by the tympanic bone. The low crest
is produced by the conjunction of both. Posteriorly and internally,
the periotic region of the bulla presents a canal,
through which the internal carotid artery passes. The posterior
opening of the carotid canal looks into the foramen
, and is not visible without dissection.
There is a large paroccipital process, with a prominent free
extremity; but, for the greater part of its length, it is closely
applied to the back of the bulla. The condyloid foramen is
quite distinct from the foramen lacerurn posterius
. A large
foramen behind the glenoidal cavity transmits a vein from the
interior of the skull. In the nasal cavity, the ethmoidal turbinals
are very large; the superior turbinals are prolonged into
the great frontal sinus, and the inferior turbinals unite, in the
middle line, with the septum.
The clavicles of the Dog are always rudimentary, and are
generally represented only by a gristly intersection of the
muscles which represent the sterno-mastoid and deltoid.
The olecranar fossa of the humerus is perforated. The
hallux is much shorter than the other digits. When the Dog
stands, the metacarpal bones of these digits are nearly vertical;
the basal phalanges are horizontal; the middle and the
distal phalanges are inclined in the form of a V with the apex
(the articulation between the two) downward. The claws
are, consequently, raised from the ground, the foot resting
partly on a thick integumentary pad, which lies beneath the
basal phalanges; and, partly, on the under surfaces of the
joints between the middle and the distal phalanges. The distal
phalanges are kept bent upon the middle ones by elastic
ligaments, which pass from one to the other, and which antagonize
the action of the long flexors. The Dog, therefore,
possesses the mechanism for the retraction of the claws, but
its action is not sufficient to protect them from wear. Fabellae
or sesamoid bones developed in the tendons of the gastroenemius
lie behind the condyles of the femur. The fibula is thin
and closely applied to, but not anchylosed with, the tibia.
The hallux is usually rudimentary; only the metatarsal, and
the basal phalanx, being represented by two small ossicles.
In some breeds of dogs, however, the hallux is fully developed.
In the myology of the Dog the insertion of the tendon of
the external oblique muscle of the abdomen presents some interesting
peculiarities. The outer and posterior fibres of this
muscle end in a fascia which is partly continued over the
thigh as fascia lata
, and partly forms an arch (Poupart's ligament)
over the femoral vessels; by its inner end it is inserted
into the outer side of a triangular fibro-cartilage, the broad
base of which is attached to the anterior margin of the pubis,
between its spine and the symphysis, while its apex lies in
the abdominal parietes. The internal tendon of the external
oblique unites with the tendon of the internal oblique to form
the inner pillar of the abdominal ring, and is inserted into the
inner side of the triangular fibro-cartilage. The pectineus
attached to the ventral face of the cartilage; the outer part
of the tendon of the rectus into its dorsal face; but the chief
part of that tendon is inserted into the pubis behind it. This
fibro-cartilage appears to represent the marsupial bone, or
cartilage, of the Monotremes and Marsupials.
and the sternomastoid
coalesce into a single
muscle; and, in the absence of a complete clavicle, the outer
fibres of the latter and those of the anterior part of the deltoid
are continuous. In this way a muscle which has been
called levator humeri proprius
is formed. The omohyoid
are absent. There is a trachelo-acromialis
The supinator longus
is absent, but
there is a pronator quadratus.
The extensor communis digitorum
divides into four tendons, in which sesamoid
bones are developed over the articulations between the first
and second phalanges. The extensor primi internodii pollicis
is absent. The extensor secundi internodii
is one muscle with
the extensor indicis.
The extensor minimi digiti
to the third, fourth, and fifth digits. All these deep extensors
have sesamoid bones over the metacarpo-phalangeal
articulations. The palmaris longus
appears to be absent;
but all the other flexors of the manus, even the palmaris brevis
are represented. The tendons of the flexor pollicis longus
aud flexor digitorum, perforans
are united. The divisions
which the common tendon sends to the five digits develop
sesamoid bones, just before their insertions into the bases of
the distal phalanges. The fifth digit has its abductor, flexor
the pollex, an abductor, adductor, flexor
, and, perhaps, an opponens.
The second, third, and
fourth digits have each a pair of flexores breves,
, and are inserted into the bases of the proximal
phalanges, a relatively large sesamoid being developed
in each. Each sends off a fine tendon dorsad to the extensor
sheath. The plantaris
is large, and, as in the Pig, its tendon
passes into the representative of the flexor brevis digitorum
. The tendons of the flexor hallucis longus
unite into a common tendon, which subdivides into
slips for the digits.
The dental formula of the Dog is i.
2.2/3.3=42. The two upper inner incisors, on each side, have
distinctly trilobed crowns-the lateral cusps of the crown
arising from outgrowths of the cingulum
at its base. The
outer incisor is larger than the others, and its middle cusp is
very large, while the outer is rudimentary. The large canine
has a strong, curved, pointed crown, with a longitudinal ridge
along its posterior face. The crowns of the anterior three
premolars are triangular, with a smooth-cutting anterior edge;
the hinder edge is also sharp, but is divided by a notch into
two lobes, of which the hinder is the smaller. These teeth
are two-fanged. The fourth premolar is a large tooth. In
form, its crown has a general similarity to that of the foregoing;
but, firstly, the posterior lobe is relatively much larger,
and pointed, so as to form an obvious second cusp; and, secondly,
a strong process of the crown projects inward from its
anterior end, and is supported by a distinct fang-so that this
premolar is three-fanged. It is termed a carnassial
, or sectorial
tooth, as it bites like a scissors-blade against a corresponding
tooth in the mandible. The preceding teeth have
cutting crowns; but those of the molars are broad and crushing.
They exhibit an outer division, formed by two large
subequal cusps, and an inner division, also presenting two
cusps, the posterior of which is much smaller than the anterior.
In addition, the cingulum sends up a strong process on
the inner side of the crown.
In the lower jaw, the crowns of the incisors, the outer of
which is the largest, are all trilobed. The outer cusp is
stronger than the inner in all, and particularly in the outer
incisors. The canines resemble those of the upper jaw. Each
premolar has two fangs and a sharp triangular crown, the posterior
edge of which is trilobed, as in the upper premolars;
but the posterior lobe is small in the fourth, which differs but
little from the rest. The first molar, on the other hand, is a
large tooth, with a blade-like crown, which bites against the
inner side of the upper fourth premolar, and is called the carnassial
tooth of the lower jaw. The crown is
elongated, and presents a large anterior external cusp, divided
into two lobes by a deep notch. On the inner side of this is
a small internal cusp. The two posterior cusps are very much
lower than the anterior ones, and form a sort of heel to the
blade-like anterior portion of the crown. An oblique ridge
connects the outer and larger of the two posterior cusps with
the small inner and anterior cusp. The second molar has a
broad quadricuspidate crown, the inner posterior cusp being
almost obsolete. The crown of the last molar is small, simple,
and obtusely conical.
It thus appears that the sectorial
, or carnassial
, teeth in
the two jaws differ in their nature, the upper being the last
premolar, and the lower the anterior molar. The milk dentition
of the Dog is d.i.
3.3/3.3, the "first premolar"
of the adult dentition having no deciduous predecessor; so
that, in this, as in so many other cases, it is doubtful whether
it ought to be counted in the milk, or in the adult, dentition.
The middle deciduous molar in both jaws resembles the hindermost
premolar of the adult dentition, and the hindermost, the
tirst molar of the adult. The so-called "first premolar" of the
adult, and the anterior molars, appear before any of the deciduous
molars are shed.
The caecum of the Dog is long, and folded upon itself, in
which respects it is unlike that of other Carnivores. The arch
of the aorta gives off an anonyma and a left subclavian.
In the brain, the olivary bodies are inconspicuous, the corpora trapezoidea
large, and the corpora mammillaria
double. The olfactory lobes are very large, and expand
posteriorly on the sides of the brain into a broad mass
continuous with the gyrus uncinatus
, or hippocampal lobule.
The cerebral hemispheres extend for a considerable distance
over the cerebellum, in the upper view, and overlap it laterally.
The Sylvian fissure does not extend more than half-way
to the median fissure. The surface which answers to the insula
is quite smooth. The anterior ends of the calloso-marginal
sulci pass on the upper surfaces of the hemispheres, and
give rise to the "crucial" sulcus. There are three principal
gyri upon the outer surfaces of the hemispheres; one which
immediately bounds the Sylvian fissure, one which runs along
the upper margin of the hemisphere, and one between these
two. The corpus callosum is long, and the anterior commissure
There is a musculus choanoides
in addition to the usual
ocular muscles, and the rudimentary nictitating membrane is
said to possess a muscle.
The tensor tympani
arises from a deep pit above the promontory,
and its tendon passes directly outward to the malleus.
The male is devoid of Cowper's glands. The penis has a
bone, and the glands becomes swollen during copulation, so as
to prevent the withdrawal of the penis from the vagina of the
female. The ovary of the female is enclosed in a sac of the
peritonaeum, and the uterus has long cornua. The umbilical
sac is drawn out to a point at each end.
The Dogs (including the Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes, under
this head) form the most central group of the Carnivora, which
may be termed the Cynoidea (See Prof. Flower's important memoir on tlie Classifleation
of the Carnivora
in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1869.)
From these the Bears,
Weasels, and Procyonidae
depart, on the one hand, and the
Cats, Civets, and Hyeenas on the other. The former group
) have the cavity of the bulla tympani
by a septum. The paroccipital process is not applied to the
posterior wall of the bulla
. The mastoid process is widely
separated from the paroccipital. The condyloid foramen is
not merged in a common opening with the foramen lacerum
The intestinal canal is devoid of a caecum. The
large penis has a bone which is not grooved; there are no
Cowper's glands, and the prostate is small.
In the latter group (Ailuroidea
) the bulla tympani
and rounded, and the septum, which is rudimentary in the Cynoidea,
is so much enlarged as to leave only a narrow
aperture of communication between the two chambers. The
par-occipital is closely applied to the posterior wall of the bulla.
The mastoid process is often obsolete. The condyloid foramen
opens into a fossa common to it and the foramen lacerum
All have a short caecum. The penis is small, and
its bone small, irregular, or absent. They have Cowper's glands and a
are all digitigrade, and resemble the Dog
in their dentition. The Arctoidea
are plantigrade, while the Ailuroidea
are for the most part digitigrade, but may be plantigrade.
In dentition, each of these groups presents forms
such as the Bears on the one hand, and the Cats on the other,
which may be regarded as extreme modifications, in opposite
directions, of the type exhibited by the Dog.
In the Bears, the dental formula is the same as in the
Dogs, but the crowns of the teeth are all more obtuse. The sectorial
teeth lose their marked characters, and the molars
have flat and tuberculated crowns. The anterior premolars
fall out as age advances. It is a remarkable circumstance that
the teeth of frugivorous and carnivorous Bears exhibit no such
differences as would lead to a suspicion of their complete
difference of habit, if we were acquainted with these animals
only in the condition of fossils.
The Cats have the dental formula i.
1.1/1.1=30. The canines are very long and sharp. The premolars
are like the Dogs', except that they are sharper, and
that the hindermost (the sectorial tooth) has hardly any internal
process. The single upper molar is a small tooth with
a flat, transversely-elongated crown, and it lies within, as well
as behind, the great sectorial premolar. In the lower jaw, the
sectorial, or first, molar is the last tooth in the series. The
crown is a deeply-bifnrcated blade representing the anteroexternal
cusp of the corresponding tooth in the Dog. The "heel" is obsolete.
While the Bears are among the most completely plantigrade
of the Carnivora, the Cats are most entirely digitigrade,
and the apparatus for the retraction of the ungual phalanges
is so well developed that the claws are completely retracted
within sheaths of the integument, when the animal does not
desire to use them. To this end the elastic ligaments are very
strong, and the median phalanx is excavated, in order to allow
of the lodgment of the retracted phalanx on one side of it.
, or Seals and Walruses, are those Carnivora
which come nearest the Cetacea
. The tail is united,
by a fold of skin which extends beyond its middle, with the
integument covering the hind-legs. These are, in most
species, permanently stretched out in a line with the axis of
the trunk. The pinna of the ear is small or absent. The toes
are completely united by strong webs, and the straight naila
are sometimes reduced in number, or even altogether abortive.
The inner and the outer digits of the pes are very large. The
incisors vary in number and lose their cutting form. The pre
molar and molar teeth are similar in character, and never
have more than two fangs. There is no lachrymal bone or
The brain-case of the cranium is generally much more
rounded than that of other Carnivora
; and, in some genera,
the supra-orbital processes of the frontals are very largely
developed. In both of these characters, and in the great
breadth and complication of the convolutions of their cerebral
hemispheres, as well as in their relatively small olfactory
nerves and anterior commissure, the Pinnipedia
approach the Cetacea
There are three groups of Pinnipedia
: the Otaridae
, the Trichechidae
, and the Phocidae
1. The Otaridae
, or Eared Seals, are so termed because the
ear possesses a distinct though almost rudimentary pinna.
These Seals have long necks, and can stand or walk upon all
fours, the hind-limbs being capable of supporting the body in
the ordinary way.
In many respects, these animals are closely allied with the
Bears; and by no part of their organization is this more clearly
shown than by the skull, which in its general form, its large
supra-orbital processes, the small and rugged bulla tympani
the perforation of the alisphenoid by a canal, and the presence
of a crest on the inner surface of the parietals, is extremely
2. The Trichechidae
, or Walruses, are devoid of external
ears, but resemble the Otaridae
in their mode of standing and
walking. The skull resembles that of the Bear in the same
respects, but the muzzle is distorted by the enormous development
of the superior canines. The Walruses resemble the
Bears in another point, namely, in the presence of a supplementary
bronchus; the right bronchus, before it reaches the
lung, dividing into two trunks, a large and a small. The thyroid
cartilage is deeply excavated, in front, by a triangular
fissure; and the epiglottis is extremely small.
In the brain, the remarkably large and richly convoluted
hemispheres cover the cerebellum, and present a rudimentary
posterior cornu. The anterior commissure is very small, as
are the olfactory nerves.
The dentition of the Walrus is extremely peculiar. In the
adult, there is one simple conical tooth in the outer part of the
premaxilla, followed by a huge tusk-like canine, and three,
short, simple-fanged teeth. Sometimes, two other teeth,
which soon fall out, lie behind these, on each side of the upper
jaw. In the mandible there are no incisors, but a single short
canine is followed by three, similar, simple teeth, and by one
other, which is caducous.
The dental formula is therefore i.
3-3/3.3 + 2.2/1.1=24.
3. The Phocidae
, or ordinary Seals. - The pinna is altogether
absent. The hind-limbs are permanently stretched
out, parallel with the tail; and, consequently, they are unable
to support the body, or assist in locomotion on land.
The space between the orbits is extremely narrow, and
supra-orbital processes are absent. The bulla tympani
large and thick-walled; and the middle are much shorter than
the outer digits of the pes.
The common Seal (Phoca vitulina
) is a native and accessible
member of this group. It has a rounded head and a
neck which is well mai-ked, though shorter in proportion than
that of the Eared-seals. The nasal apertures are slit-like and
can be closed at will, the eyes large and brilliant, and the
auditory apertures small and devoid of a pinna. The limbs
are large, and their distal longer than their proximal divisions.
The fore-limb is buried beyond the elbow in the common
integument, but the flexible wrist allows the weight of
the body to be supported by the palmar surface of the manus.
The hind-limbs, on the contrary, are permanently extended
and turned backward parallel with the tail, which lies between
them, and with which they form a sort of terminal fin. When
the Seal swims, in fact, the fore-limbs are applied against the
sides of the thorax, and, the hinder moiety of the body being
very flexible, the conjoined hind-limbs and tail are put to the
same use as the caudal fin of a Cetacean. The Seal has twenty
dorso-lumbar vertebrae, of which five are lumbar. There are
four sacral vertebrae, but only one of these unites with the ilia.
Eleven vertebrae enter into the formation of the short tail.
There are ten true ribs and nine sternebrae, the manubrium
being prolonged forward into a long cartilaginous process.
The brain-case is smooth, rounded, and spacious, but the
cranium narrows rapidly in the interorbital region. Its floor
is remarkably flattened from above downward and very thin,
the broad basi-occipital sometimes presenting a perforation in
the dry skull. The falx is partially, and the tentorium is wholly,
ossified. The occipital segment is very large, and the supraoccipital
advances between the parietals, but does not separate
them completely. The alisphenoids are small and almost horizontal,
and the synchondrosis between the basisphenoid and
presphenoid persists. In all these respects the Seal's skull is
strikingly cetacean. In fact, if the supra-orbital processes
were sawn off, a Porpoise's brain-case would closely resemble
a Seal's. But the nasal bones and the parietals are large, and
the ethmoidal region is very peculiar. The lamina perpendicularis
is largely ossified, and the vomer soon becomes ossified
into one mass with it. The two ethmoidal turbinals (or
the superior and middle) are small and flattened, and the latter
anchyloses with the vomer on each side. The inferior, or
maxillary, turbinal is extremely large and complicated, and it
blocks the nasal passage in front of the others like a sieve, or
strainer. There is no lachrymal bone, but the jugal is large.
The squamosal is anchylosed with the periotic and tympanic.
The latter is massive and shell-shaped, somewhat as in the Cetacea
, but it has rather diiferent relations to the auditory
meatus. The periotic is very large, and its tumid pars mastoidea
appears largely on the exterior of the skull. The fossa
under the superior vertical semicircular canal is prolonged into
this tumid part of the periotic.
The alveolar portions of the premaxillae are very small, but
these bones extend far up the sides of the anterior nares.
The maxillae do not extend over the frontals. The mandible
has a well-developed coronoid process.
The pollex is the longest and strongest digit, the others
gradually decreasing in length. The fifth metacarpal articulates
with the cuneiform bone, as well as with the unciform.
The ilium is short, and the long pubis and ischium are
greatly inclined backward, so that the long diameter of the os
makes only an acute angle with the spine. The
femur is much shorter than the humerus. The tibia and fibula
are anchylosed, and more than twice as long as the femur.
The pes is longer than the tibia. The astragalus has a peculiar,
roof-shaped, tibial surface, and sends a process backward
which contributes to the formation of the very short heel.
The hallux is the strongest of the digits; while this and the
fifth digit are the longest of those of the pes.
The cutaneous muscle is largely developed and inserted
into the humerus. The pectoralis major
is very large, and
arises from each side of the prolonged manubrium, and even
in front of it, beneath the neck; the fibres of the muscles of
opposite sides are continuous. The palmaris longus
is a strong
muscle, but the proper digital muscles are weak or absent, as
in the case of the abductor, adductor, flexor brevis,
of the fifth digit. A special long abductor of this digit,
however, passes from the olecranon to the distal phalanx. The iliacus
is wanting, and there is no psoas major
; but muscles
which represent the psoas minor
and the subvertebral muscles
of the Cetacea
are very large and play an important part iu
effecting the locomotion of the Seal. The pectineus
small, and the other adductors are inserted, not into the femvir,
but into the tibia. The glutaeus maximus
is inserted into the
whole length of the femur. The semi-membranosus
are replaced by a caudo-tibialis
, which arises from
the anterior caudal vertebrae and is inserted into the tibia,
some of its tendinous fibres extending to the plantar aspect
of the hallux. The poplitaeus
but there is no solaeus
. The tendon of the plantaris
over tiie calcaneum and ends on the plantar fascia of the perforated
tendon of the fourth digit. The other perforated tendons
seem to arise from the fascia attached to the calcaneum.
The dental formula is i.
The grinding teeth have triangular crowns with notched
edges, and at most two fangs.
The milk-teeth are shed during foetal life, and at this
period there are three molars above and below on each side,
which appear to be replaced by the second, third, and fourth
of the adult set. If such be the case, only the hindermost of
these last will be a true molar.
The tongue is bifid at the extremity. The oesophagus,
very wide and dilatable, passes without any very well-marked
line of demarcation into the stomach, which is a great pyriform
sac with its pyloric end bent upon itself. The intestine
is about twelve times as long as the body. The colon is
short, and is provided with a caecum. The liver is divided
into a great number of lobules, which are, as it were, set upon
the inferior cava. The latter vessel, just below, the diaphragm,
presents a great dilatation, into which the venae hepaticae
the several lobules open. After traversing the diaphragm,
the vena cava is surrounded, for about an inch, by a layer of
red circular muscular fibres. The aorta and the pulmonary
artery are both dilated at their commencements.
The penis of the male is contained within a prepuce, suported by
a loop of the cutaneous muscle. There is a large
os penis, which presents a groove for the urethra inferiorly.
The prostate is small, and there are no vesiculae nor Cowper's
glands. The testes lie just outside the inguinal canal. The
anus and the vulva of the female are surrounded by a common
fold of integument. The clitoris has no bone. The body of
the uterus is divided by a longitudinal septum.