Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

In Techniques of Genetic Engineering, construction of recombinant DNA and its cloning into bacteria and plant/animal cells are described. Following these techniques thousands of DNA fragments of pro-and eukaryotes (plant and animals) have been cloned during fee last two decades. According to the utility the cloned DNAs can be used in basic research or commercial production of useful products. Basic research includes DNA probe, expression of cloned genes, colony/ plaque hybridization, genome mapping and many more related to genetic engineering.

Moreover, cloned genes are utilized commercially in, medicals, agriculture and industry, and the production of valuable products. An outline of arcja applications of genetic engineering techniques is given in Fig. 5.1. In this connection some of the cloned genes and application of genetic engineering techniques are described here.

Area of application of genetic engineering techniques.Fig. 5.1. Area of application of genetic engineering techniques.


» Cloned genes and production of chemicals
    » Human peptide hormone genes
      » Insulines
      » Somatotropin
      » Somatostatin
      » β-endorphin
    » Human interferon genes
    » Genes for vaccines
      » Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus
      » Vaccines for Rabies virus
      » Vaccines for poliovirus
      » Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus
      » Vaccines for small pox virus
      » Malaria vaccines
      » DNA vaccines
    » Genes associated with genetic diseases
      » Phenylketonuria
      » Urokinase
      » Thalassaemia
      » Hemophilia
    » Enzyme engineering
    » Commercial chemicals
 » Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases
    » Prevention of diseases
    » Diagnosis of diseases
      » Parasitic diseases
      » Monoclonal antibodies
      » Antenatal diagnosis
    » Gene therapy
      » Types of gene therapy
      » Methods of gene therapy
      » Success of gene therapy
      » Potential of gene delivering system
      » Future needs of gene therapy in India
 » DNA profiling (fingerprinting)
    » Methods of DNA profiling
    » Application of DNA profiling
      » Genetic databank
      » Reuniting the lost children
      » Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc
      » Immigrant dispute
    » Hurdles of DNA profiling
 » Animal and plant improvement
    » Transgenic Farm Animals
    » Crop Improvements
      » Transgenic plants
      » Nif gene transfer
      » Phaseolin gene transfer
      » Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants
      » Herbicide resistant plants
      » Insect pest resistant plants
      » Plant improvement through genetic transformation
    » Crop Protection
      » Use of antagonists
      » Use of insecticides
 » Abatement of pollution