Enzyme Technology

Microorganisms Producing Enzyme

There is a large number of microorganisms which produce a variety of enzymes. Enzymes differ with respect to substrates. Some of the microorganisms producing enzymes are listed in Table 17.1.

Table 17.1. Microorganisms producing enzymes.

Microorganisms
Enzymes
A.
Bacteria:


Bacillus cereus
Penicillinase

B. coagulans
a-amylase

B. licheniformis
a-amylase, protease

B. megaterium
Penicillin acylase

Citrobacter spp.
L-asparaginase

Escherichia coli
Penicillin acylase, b-galactosidase

Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pullulanase
B.
Actinomycetes:


Actinoplanes sp.
Glucose isomerase
C.
     Fungi:


Aspergilus flavus
Urate oxidase

A. niger
Amylases, protease, pectinase, glucose oxidase

A. oryzae
Amylases, lipases, protease

Aureobasidium pullulans
Esterase, invertase

Candila lipolytica
Lipase

Mucor micheli and M. pusillis
Bennet

Neurospora crassa
Trysinase

Penicillium funiculosum
Dextranase

P. notatum
Glucose oxidase

Rhizopus sp.
Lipase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Invertase

S. fragilis
Invertase

Trichoderma reesei
Cellulase

T. viride
Cellulase

  Content
» Microorganisms
» Properties of enzymes

» Presence of species specificity

» Variation in activity and stability

» Substrate specificity

» Activation and inhibition
» Methods of enzyme production

» Isolation of microorganisms, strain development and preparation of inoculum 

» Medium formulation and preparation

» Sterilization and inoculation of medium, maintenance of culture and fluid filtration

» Purification of enzymes
» Immobilization of enzymes

» Advantages of using immobilized enzymes

» Methods of enzyme immobilization


» Adsorption


» Covalent bonding (Ionic bonding)


» Entrapping


» Cross linking


» Encapsulation

» Effects of enzyme immobilization on enzyme stability
» Enzyme engineering
» Application of enzymes

» Therapeutic uses

» Analytical uses

» Manipulative uses

» Industrial uses


» In dairy industry


» In detergent industry


» In starch industry


» In brewing industry


» In wine industry


» In pharmaceutical industry
» Biosensor

» Types of biosensor

» Applications of biosensor
» Biochips

» Principles of Biochips

» Application of Biochips