The following factors (like bacteria) affect the growth of moulds : (a)
carbon, nitrogen (C : N) ratio is required to be in the range of 5:1 to 15:1; (b)
ammonium salts are used as a source of nitrogen in continuous culture and phospheric acid for phosphorus. Moreover, most of fungi, for their growth require minerals, such as potassium, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and cobalt. Their concentration differs with respect to species; (c)
pH of growth medium ranges from 3.0 to 7.0 but pH 5-6 or below is desirable for most of fungi because bacterial contaminants do not grow; (d)
temperature ranges from 25°C to 30°C with certain exceptions; (e)
oxygen is required for good growth of fungi. During agitation, mycelial mat forms pellets.