Present Status of Mushroom Cultivation in India
Since 1983, a large number of growers started mushroom cultivation during winter around Delhi, Chandigarh and some districts of Haryana (e.g. Sonepat, Rohtak, Karnal) and Punjab (e.g. Ferozpur, Patiala, Ludhiana and Jalandhar). In Bhiwani district of Haryana mushroom cultivation is gaining much popularity. Under the guidance of specialists of Krishi Gyan Kendra and Scientists of Haryana Agriculture University (Hissar) the farmers in villages Tagrana and Bamla have undertaken cultivation of mushrooms. These villages have been declared as mushroom villages.
Since mushrooms have a very short life, it should reach to consumers within a short time or immediately canned. This will lead to proper marketing of mushrooms. In India, over-production and improper care for marketing have resulted in the increase in price. The cost of production in India at present is comparatively higher than other countries (Rs. 10 / kg in North Indian plains and Rs. 15/kg in hills) and hence cannot compete in international market. The yield obtained so far is low due to (a) improper infrastructure of preparation of pasteurized compost, (b) use of ordinary buildings lacking proper temperature control as cropping rooms, (c) use of low yielding strains, (d) inadequate supply of quality spawn, (e) lack of trained manpower, and (f) inadequate research support (Sohi, 1988). The technology for cultivation and processing of mushroom has been developed at CFTRI (Hyderabad), RRL (Jammu) and NBRI (Lucknow). RRL and NBRI are distributing mushroom spawns in rural areas for mass cultivation. CFTRI has developed technique for processing and drying mushrooms.