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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
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Enzyme Technology


Enzyme Engineering

Since genes encode enzymes, the changes in gene certainly bring about alteration in enzyme structure. In addition to methods available for gene manipulation alteration of genes by site directed mutagenesis (see Immobilized cell culture) for enzyme engineering has become much popular. Thus, site-directed mutagenesis produces single amino acid substitutions in the primary structure of enzymes.

In recent years, the term "enzyme engineering" is used to denote the modification of enzyme structure by alteration of genes which code enzymes. An enzyme produced by a modified gene is structurally new which has great promise to create a new enzyme. Enzyme engineering embraces the (i) production of new enzymes, (ii) study of structural feature related to stability (iii) increase in stability by changing amino acid composition, and (iv) production of stable enzymes by genetically engineered microbial cells.



Properties of enzymes


Presence of species specificity


Variation in activity and stability


Substrate specificity


Activation and inhibition

Methods of enzyme production


Isolation of microorganisms, strain development and preparation of inoculum 


Medium formulation and preparation


Sterilization and inoculation of medium, maintenance of culture and fluid filtration


Purification of enzymes

Immobilization of enzymes


Advantages of using immobilized enzymes


Methods of enzyme immobilization






Covalent bonding (Ionic bonding)






Cross linking





Effects of enzyme immobilization on enzyme stability

Enzyme engineering

Application of enzymes


Therapeutic uses


Analytical uses


Manipulative uses


Industrial uses



In dairy industry



In detergent industry



In starch industry



In brewing industry



In wine industry



In pharmaceutical industry



Types of biosensor


Applications of biosensor



Principles of Biochips


Application of Biochips


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