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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
 
 
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Enzyme Technology

 
     
 

Enzyme Engineering

Since genes encode enzymes, the changes in gene certainly bring about alteration in enzyme structure. In addition to methods available for gene manipulation alteration of genes by site directed mutagenesis (see Immobilized cell culture) for enzyme engineering has become much popular. Thus, site-directed mutagenesis produces single amino acid substitutions in the primary structure of enzymes.

In recent years, the term "enzyme engineering" is used to denote the modification of enzyme structure by alteration of genes which code enzymes. An enzyme produced by a modified gene is structurally new which has great promise to create a new enzyme. Enzyme engineering embraces the (i) production of new enzymes, (ii) study of structural feature related to stability (iii) increase in stability by changing amino acid composition, and (iv) production of stable enzymes by genetically engineered microbial cells.
 

Content

Microorganisms

Properties of enzymes

 

Presence of species specificity

 

Variation in activity and stability

 

Substrate specificity

 

Activation and inhibition

Methods of enzyme production

 

Isolation of microorganisms, strain development and preparation of inoculum 

 

Medium formulation and preparation

 

Sterilization and inoculation of medium, maintenance of culture and fluid filtration

 

Purification of enzymes

Immobilization of enzymes

 

Advantages of using immobilized enzymes

 

Methods of enzyme immobilization

 

 

Adsorption

 

 

Covalent bonding (Ionic bonding)

 

 

Entrapping

 

 

Cross linking

 

 

Encapsulation

 

Effects of enzyme immobilization on enzyme stability

Enzyme engineering

Application of enzymes

 

Therapeutic uses

 

Analytical uses

 

Manipulative uses

 

Industrial uses

 

 

In dairy industry

 

 

In detergent industry

 

 

In starch industry

 

 

In brewing industry

 

 

In wine industry

 

 

In pharmaceutical industry

Biosensor

 

Types of biosensor

 

Applications of biosensor

Biochips

 

Principles of Biochips

 

Application of Biochips

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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