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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
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Microbial Biotechnology


Features of Biotechnological Importance in Microorganisms



Cultures of microorganism


Solid or semisolid culture


Batch culture


Continuous culture


Fed-batch culture

Metabolic pathways in microorganisms


Glycolysis or EMP pathway


The Entner-Doudoroff pathway


The pentose phosphate pathway

Microbial products


Primary metabolites


Secondary metabolites




Microbial biomass

Primary Metabolites


  Vitamins B12
    Chemical structure
    Commercial production
Organic acids

Citric acid


Commercial production



Biochemistry of fermentation


Use of organic acids



Microorganism used in alcohol production


Fermentable substrates


Biochemistry of fermentation


Ethanol fermentation by yeasts


Ethanol fermentation by bacteria


Ethanol fermentation methods


Distilleries producing alcohols


Alcoholic beverages













Uses of alcohols

Secondary Metabolites



Bacterial toxins


Chemical nature


Production of b-exotoxin


Microbial insecticides


Mycotoxins, type, action, control






Selection of culture of penicillium


Chemical nature of penicillins


Fermentation medium


Fermentation process


Antibiotic producing companies

Enzyme Technology


Properties of enzymes


Presence of species specificity


Variation in activity and stability


Substrate specificity


Activation and inhibition

Methods of enzyme production


Isolation of microorganisms, strain development and preparation of inoculum 


Medium formulation and preparation


Sterilization and inoculation of medium, maintenance of culture and fluid filtration


Purification of enzymes

Immobilization of enzymes


Advantages of using immobilized enzymes


Methods of enzyme immobilization




Covalent bonding (Ionic bonding)




Cross linking




Effects of enzyme immobilization on enzyme stability

Enzyme engineering

Application of enzymes


Therapeutic uses


Analytical uses


Manipulative uses


Industrial uses



In dairy industry



In detergent industry



In starch industry



In brewing industry



In wine industry


In pharmaceutical industry



Types of biosensor


Applications of biosensor



Principles of Biochips


Application of Biochips

Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Mycoprotein

Advantages of producing microbial protein

Microorganisms use as single cell protein (SCP)

Substrates used for the production of SCP

Nutritional values of SCP

Genetic improvements of microbial cells

Production of algal biomass


Factors affecting biomass production


Harvesting the algal biomass


Spirulina as SCP, cultivation and uses

Production of bacterial and actinomycetous biomass


Method of production


Factors affecting biomass production


Product recovery

Production of yeast biomass


Factors affecting growth of yeast


Recovery of yeast biomass

Production of fungal biomass (Other than Mushrooms)


Growth conditions


Organic wastes as substrates


Traditional fungal foods









Mushroom culture


Historical background


Present status of mushroom culture in India


Nutritional values


Cultivation methods


Obtaining pure culture 


Preparation of spawns


Formulation and preparation of composts


Spawning, spawn running and cropping


Control of pathogens and pests


Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom


Cultivation of white button mushroom


Cultivation of Dhingri (Pleurotus sajor-caju)


Recipes of mushroom


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