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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
 
 
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Microbial Biotechnology

 
     
 
Content

Features of Biotechnological Importance in Microorganisms

Fermentation

Microorganisms

Cultures of microorganism

 

Solid or semisolid culture

 

Batch culture

 

Continuous culture

 

Fed-batch culture

Metabolic pathways in microorganisms

 

Glycolysis or EMP pathway

 

The Entner-Doudoroff pathway

 

The pentose phosphate pathway

Microbial products

 

Primary metabolites

 

Secondary metabolites

 

Enzymes

 

Microbial biomass


Primary Metabolites

Vitamins

  Vitamins B12
    Chemical structure
    Commercial production
Organic acids
 

Citric acid

   

Commercial production

 

 

Biochemistry of fermentation

 

Use of organic acids

Alcohols

 

Microorganism used in alcohol production

 

Fermentable substrates

 

Biochemistry of fermentation

   

Ethanol fermentation by yeasts

   

Ethanol fermentation by bacteria

 

Ethanol fermentation methods

 

Distilleries producing alcohols

 

Alcoholic beverages

 

 

Wine

   

Beer

   

Rum

   

Whisky

   

Sake

 

Uses of alcohols



Secondary Metabolites

Toxins

 

Bacterial toxins

   

Chemical nature

   

Production of b-exotoxin

   

Microbial insecticides

 

Mycotoxins, type, action, control

Antibiotics

 

Penicillins

 

 

Selection of culture of penicillium

   

Chemical nature of penicillins

   

Fermentation medium

   

Fermentation process

   

Antibiotic producing companies


Enzyme Technology

Microorganisms

Properties of enzymes

 

Presence of species specificity

 

Variation in activity and stability

 

Substrate specificity

 

Activation and inhibition

Methods of enzyme production

 

Isolation of microorganisms, strain development and preparation of inoculum 

 

Medium formulation and preparation

 

Sterilization and inoculation of medium, maintenance of culture and fluid filtration

 

Purification of enzymes

Immobilization of enzymes

 

Advantages of using immobilized enzymes

 

Methods of enzyme immobilization

   

Adsorption

   

Covalent bonding (Ionic bonding)

   

Entrapping

   

Cross linking

   

Encapsulation

 

Effects of enzyme immobilization on enzyme stability

Enzyme engineering

Application of enzymes

 

Therapeutic uses

 

Analytical uses

 

Manipulative uses

 

Industrial uses

 

 

In dairy industry

 

 

In detergent industry

 

 

In starch industry

 

 

In brewing industry

 

 

In wine industry

   

In pharmaceutical industry

Biosensor

 

Types of biosensor

 

Applications of biosensor

Biochips

 

Principles of Biochips

 

Application of Biochips




Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Mycoprotein

Advantages of producing microbial protein

Microorganisms use as single cell protein (SCP)

Substrates used for the production of SCP

Nutritional values of SCP

Genetic improvements of microbial cells

Production of algal biomass

 

Factors affecting biomass production

 

Harvesting the algal biomass

 

Spirulina as SCP, cultivation and uses

Production of bacterial and actinomycetous biomass

 

Method of production

 

Factors affecting biomass production

 

Product recovery

Production of yeast biomass

 

Factors affecting growth of yeast

 

Recovery of yeast biomass

Production of fungal biomass (Other than Mushrooms)

 

Growth conditions

 

Organic wastes as substrates

 

Traditional fungal foods

   

Shoyu

   

Miso

   

Sake

   

Tempeh  

Mushroom culture

 

Historical background

 

Present status of mushroom culture in India

 

Nutritional values

 

Cultivation methods

   

Obtaining pure culture 

   

Preparation of spawns

   

Formulation and preparation of composts

   

Spawning, spawn running and cropping

 

Control of pathogens and pests

 

Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom

 

Cultivation of white button mushroom

 

Cultivation of Dhingri (Pleurotus sajor-caju)

 

Recipes of mushroom


 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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