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  Section: Plant Nutrition » Micronutrients » Manganese
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Forms of Manganese and Abundance in Soils
Importance to Plants and Animals
  Essentiality of Manganese to Higher Plants
  Function in Plants
  Importance to Animals
Absorption and Mobility
  Absorption Mechanisms
  Distribution and Mobility of Manganese in Plants
Manganese Deficiency
  Indicator Plants
  Indicator Plants
Manganese and Diseases

The determination of manganese (Mn) essentiality in plant growth by McHargue (1914–1922) focused the attention of plant nutritionists on this nutrient, and led the way for further groundbreaking studies. Since then, research into the concentrations of manganese that confer deficiency or toxicity, and the variation between- and within-plant species in their tolerance or susceptibility to these afflictions has proliferated. The symptoms of toxicity and deficiency have also received much attention owing to their variation among species and their similarity to other nutrient anomalies. The diversity of visual symptoms within a species that often confounds diagnosis has been attributed to soil conditions. Soil pH is one of the most influential factors affecting the absorption of manganese by changing mobility from bulk soil to root surface. In addition to research on manganese diagnostics, workers have also focused on the role of manganese in resistance to pests and disease, revealing economically important interactions that further highlight the importance of this nutrient in optimal plant production.

This section reviews literature dealing with the identification of manganese deficiency and toxicity in various crops of economic importance, the physiology of manganese uptake and transport, and the interaction between manganese and diseases. In addition, a large table outlining deficient, adequate, and toxic concentrations for various crops is included.


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