Content of Genetic Engineering of Amino Acid Metabolism in Plants
» Abstract & Keywords
» Introduction
» Glutamine, Glutamate, Aspartate, and Asparagine are Central Regulators of Nitrogen Assimilation, Metabolism, and Transport
    » GS: A highly regulated, multifunctional gene family
    » Role of the ferredoxin- and NADH-dependent GOGAT
isozymes in plant glutamate biosynthesis
    » Glutamate dehydrogenase: An enzyme with controversial
functions in plants
    » The network of amide amino acids metabolism is regulated in concert by developmental, physiological, environmental,
metabolic, and stress-derived signals
» The Aspartate Family Pathway that is Responsible for Synthesis of the Essential Amino Acids Lysine, Threonine, Methionine, and Isoleucine
    » The aspartate family pathway is regulated by several feedback inhibition loops
    » Metabolic fluxes of the aspartate family pathway are regulated by developmental, physiological, and
environmental signals
    » Metabolic interactions between AAAM and the aspartate family pathway
    » Metabolism of the aspartate family amino acids in
developing seeds: A balance between synthesis and
» Regulation of Methionine Biosynthesis
    » Regulatory role of CGS in methionine biosynthesis
    » Interrelationships between threonine and methionine biosynthesis
» Engineering Amino Acid Metabolism to Improve the Nutritional Quality of Plants for Nonruminants and Ruminants
» Future Prospects
» Summary
» Acknowledgements
» References
Apart from serving as protein building blocks, amino acids play multiple regulatory roles in plant growth, including nitrogen assimilation and transport, carbon/nitrogen balance, production of hormones and secondary metabolites, stress-associated metabolism, and many other processes. Some of the amino acids are of particular importance not only for plant growth but also for the nutritional quality of plant foods and feeds because human and its ruminant and nonruminant livestock cannot synthesize them and depend on their availability in their diets. Genetic and metabolic engineering approaches have contributed tremendously to the understanding of the regulation of amino acid metabolism in plants. This chapter discusses how amino acid metabolism is regulated by complex regulatory networks that operate in concert with other regulatory networks of carbon and likely also lipid metabolism. These networks are, however, also subjected to concerted spatial, temporal, developmental, and environmental controls. The combined application of genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic approaches coupled with genetic and metabolic engineering, as well as analysis of dynamic fluxes in different intracellular organelles, offers a promising future for the dissection of these compound regulatory networks.