In Vitro Culture Techniques : The Biotechnological Principles

Root, shoot and leaves (but not embryo) are the organs that are induced in plant tissue culture. Since embryo is an independent structure and does not have vascular supply, it is not supposed to be the plant organ. Organogenesis (i.e. development of organs) starts with stimulation caused by the chemicals of medium, substances carried over from the original explants and endogenous compounds produced by the culture (Thomas and Davey, 1975).
Skoog (1944) for the first time indicated that the organogenesis could be chemically controlled. He observed root initiation (rhizogenesis) and shoot inhibition (caulogenesis) after addition of auxin to the medium. Further, Skoog and co-workers gave the concept of regulation of organogenesis by a balance between cytokinin and auxin. Skoog and Miller (1957) demonstrated that a high ratio of auxin: cytokinin stimulated the formation of root in tobacco callus, but a low ratio of the same induced shoot formation. The hypothesis of organogenesis was advanced by Torrey (1966) who propounded that organogenesis in callus starts with the development of a group of meristematic cells i.e. meristemoids that can respond to the factors within the system to initiate a primordium which, depending on kinds of factors, induces either root, shoot or embryoid. (Table 8.2).
Table 8.2 In vitro control of organogenesis by auxins and cytokinins
Auxin (mg/1)
Cytokinin (mg/1)
                No growth

Source : Nandi and Palni (1992)

» Totipotency
» Historical background
» Requirements for cell and Tissue Cultures

» A tissues culture laboratory

» Nutrient media

» Inorganic chemicals

» Growth hormones

» Organic constitutents

» Vitamins

» Amino acids
» Culture of plant materials

» Explant culture

» Callus formation and its culture

» Organogenesis

» Root culture

» Shoot culture and micropropagation

» Cell culture

» Benefits from cell culture

» Somatic embryogenesis

» Somaclonal variation

» Protoplast culture

» Isolation

» Regeneration

» Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization

» Fusion products

» Method of somatic hybridization

» Anther and pollen Culture

» Culturing techniques

» In vitro androgenesis (direct and indirect androgenesis)

» Mentor pollen technology

» Embryo culture

» Embryo rescue

» Protoplast fusion in fungi