Licensing of Eukaryotic Genome Replication

Content of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
» Nucleic Acids
» Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids
    » Basic Chemical Structure
    » Base Pairing in Nucleic Acids: Double Helical Structure of Dna
    » Size, Structure, Organization, and Complexity of Genomes
    » Information Storage, Processing, and Transfer
    » Chromosomal Dna Compaction and Its Implications in Replication and Transcription
    » DNA Sequence and Chromosome Organization
    » Repetitive Sequences: Selfish DNA
    » Chromatin Remodeling and Histone Acetylation
» Nucleic Acid Syntheses
    » Similarity of DNA and RNA Synthesis
    » DNA Replication Vs Transcription: Enzymatic Processes
    » Multiplicity of DNA and RNA Polymerases
» DNA Replication and Its Regulation
    » DNA Replication
    » Regulation of DNA Replication
    » Regulation of Bacterial DNA Replication at the Level of Initiation
    » DNA Chain Elongation and Termination in Prokaryotes
    » General Features of Eukaryotic DNA Replication
    » Licensing of Eukaryotic Genome Replication
    » Fidelity of DNA Replication
    » Replication of Telomeres—The End Game
    » Telomere Shortening: Linkage Between Telomere Length and Limited Life Span
» Maintenance of Genome Integrity
» DNA Manipulations and their Applications
» Transcriptional Processes
    » Recognition of Prokaryotic Promoters and Role of S-Factors
    » Regulation of Transcription in Bacteria
    » Eukaryotic Transcription
    » RNA Splicing in Metazoans
    » Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes
    » Fidelity of Transcription (RNA Editing)
» Chemical Synthesis of Nucleic Acids (Oligonucleotides)
» Bibliography of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
Unlike in bacteria and plasmids, DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is extremely precise, and replication initiation occurs only once in each cell cycle to ensure genomic stability. “Licensing” is the process of making the chromatin competent for DNA replication in which a collection of proteins called origin recognition complex (ORC) bind to the ori sequences. This binding is necessary for other proteins required for the onset of the S phase to bind to DNA. ORC is present throughout the cell cycle. However, other proteins required for replication initiation and chain elongation are loaded in a stepwise fashion. The onset of the S phase may be controlled by a minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex of proteins which licenses DNA for replication, presumably by making it accessible to the DNA synthesis machinery. Several protein factors are involved in the loading process, which is regulated both positively and negatively. The level of regulator proteins, such as geminin, which blocks licensing, is also regulated by some cell cycle-dependent feedback mechanisms.