Bonner, J. T. 1988. The evolution of complexity
by means of natural selection. Princeton,
New Jersey, Princeton University Press. Levels of complexity in organisms and how
size affects complexity.
Caplan, A. J. 1984. Cartilage. Sci. Am. 251:84–94
(Oct.). Structure, aging, and development
of vertebrate cartilage.
Grene, M. 1987. Hierarchies in biology. Am. Sci. 75:504–510 (Sept.–Oct.). The term “hierarchy”
is used in many different senses in
biology. The author points out that current
evolutionary theory carries the hierarchical
concept beyond the Darwinian restriction
to the two levels of gene and organism.
Kessel, R. G., and R. H. Kardon. 1979. Tissues
and organs: a text-atlas of scanning electron
microscopy. San Francisco, W. H.
Freeman & Co. Collection of excellent
scanning electron micrographs with text.
McGowan, C. 1994. Diatoms to dinosaurs.
Washington, D.C., Island Press. The theme
of this engaging book is the influence of
size and scale on how animals move
through their environment, whether land,
water, or air.
McGowan, C. 1999. A practical guide to vertebrate
mechanics. New York, Cambridge
University Press. Using many examples
from his earlier book, Diatoms to dinosaurs, the author describes principles of
biomechanics that underlie functional
anatomy. Includes practical experiments
and laboratory exercises.
McMahon, T. A., and J. T. Bonner. 1983. On size
and life. New York, Scientific American
Books, Inc. A well-illustrated book about
size and scale in the living world; clear
examples and explanations.
Welsch, U., and V. Storch. 1976. Comparative
animal cytology and histology. London,
Sidgwick & Jackson. Comparative histology
with good treatment of invertebrates.