Bird, A. F., and J. Bird. 1991. The structure of
nematodes, ed. 2. New York, Academic
Press. The most authoritative reference
available on nematode morphology. Highly
Chan, M.-S. 1997. The global burden of intestinal
nematode infections—fifty years on.
Parasitol. Today. 13:438–443. According to
this author, most recent estimates are 1.273
billion infections (24% prevalence) with
Ascaris, 0.902 billion (17% prevalence)
with Trichuris, and 1.277 billion (24%
prevalence) with hookworms. Worldwide
prevalence of these nematodes has
remained essentially unchanged in 50
Despommier, D. D. 1998. How does Trichinella
spiralis make itself at home? Parasitol.
Today 14:318–323. How Trichinella takes
over control of its host’s gene expression.
Duke, B. O. L. 1990. Onchocerciasis (river
blindness)—can it be eradicated? Parasitol.
Today 6:82–84. Despite the introduction of
a very effective drug, the author predicts
that this parasite will not be eradicated in
the foreseeable future.
Ogilvie, B. M., M. E. Selikirk, and R. M.
Maizels. 1990. The molecular revolution
and nematode parasitology: yesterday,
today, and tomorrow. J. Parasitol. 76:607–618. Modern molecular biology
has wrought enormous changes in investigations
Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1983. The natural history of
nematodes. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,
Prentice-Hall, Inc. Contains a great deal of
information about these fascinating creatures,
including free-living and plant and
Roberts, L. 1990. The worm project. Science 248:1310–1313. A nematode, Caenorhabditis
elegans, has been of great
value in studies of development and
Taylor, M. J., and A. Hoerauf. 1999. Wolbachia
bacteria of filarial nematodes. Parasitol.
Today 15:437–442. All filarial parasites of
humans have endosymbiotic Wolbachia,
and most filarial nematodes of all kinds
are infected. Nematodes can be “cured” by
treatment with the antibiotic tetracycline. If
cured, they cannot reproduce. Bacteria are
apparently passed vertically from females to