Extrinsic muscles attached to the humerus or femur, on
the dorsal aspect
In the fore-limb there is the post-axial latissimus
passing from spines of dorsal vertebrae to the
humerus. On the ventral aspect, the pectoralis major
from the sternum and ribs to the humerus.
In the hind-limb, the glutoeus maximus,
so far as it arises
from the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae, and is inserted into
the femur, repeats the relations of the latissimus dorsi
the absence of any thing corresponding with the sternum, or
the ribs, no exact homologue of the pectoralis major
said to exist, though the pectineus
comes near it. The psoas
passing from posterior dorsal or lumbar vertebrae - the pyriformis
from sacral vertebrae - the femoro-coccygeus
it exists) from caudal vertebrae - to the femur, are all hyposkeletal
muscles, without homologues in the anterior extremity.
All the other muscles of the limbs are intrinsic,
their origins from the pectoral or pelvic arches, or from some
of the more proximal segments of the limb-skeleton, and having
their insertion in the more distal segments. They are
thus arranged in Man and the higher Mammalia.