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In Vitro Culture Techniques : The Biotechnological Principles

 
     
 

During the last two decades plant cell, tissue and organ culture have developed rapidly and become a major biotechnological tool in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and industry. Those problems which were not feasible through conventional techniques, now have been solved via these techniques, for example, inter- and intra-specific crosses, micropropagation, somaclonal variation, encapsulated seeds, etc.

To boost up these areas ICGEB in a workshop (held at New Delhi from September 18 to 20, 1985), recommended the need of more research in developing countries on plant cell culture, differentiation, regeneration and transformation in tropical grain legumes, woody legumes and cereals. The emphasis was laid to improve growth under stress condition, pest and disease resistance, improved nutritional quality, nitrogen fixation and the control of partitioning within the plants. A detailed account of plant cells, tissue and organ culture is given in this context.

Content

Totipotency

Historical background

Requirements for cell and Tissue Cultures

 

A tissues culture laboratory

 

Nutrient media

   

Inorganic chemicals

 

 

Growth hormones

   

Organic constitutents

   

Vitamins

   

Amino acids

Culture of plant materials

 

Explant culture

 

Callus formation and its culture

 

Organogenesis

 

Root culture

 

Shoot culture and micropropagation

 

Cell culture

   

Benefits from cell culture

 

Somatic embryogenesis

 

Somaclonal variation

 

Protoplast culture

   

Isolation

   

Regeneration

 

Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization

   

Fusion products

   

Method of somatic hybridization

 

Anther and pollen Culture

   

Culturing techniques

 

In vitro androgenesis (direct and indirect androgenesis)

 

Mentor pollen technology

 

Embryo culture

 

Embryo rescue

 

Protoplast fusion in fungi




Totipotency: The Basis of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture
Each living cell, of a multicellular organism, is capable of independent development, when provided with suitable conditions (White, 1963). Morgan (1901) coined the term 'totipotency' to denote this capacity of cell to develop into an organism by regeneration. However, the concept of totipotency is important in tissue culture. Use of multicellular organisms in research, as biological units, is rather difficult; therefore, attempts to study an organism by reducing to its constituent cells and subsequently the cultured cells as basic organism, are of fundamental importance (White, 1963).


 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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