Alexander, R. M. 1982. Locomotion in animals.
New York, Chapman and Hall. Concise,
fully comparative treatment. Introduced
with a discussion of “sources of power” followed
by treatment of mechanisms and
energetics of locomotion on land, in water,
and in the air. Undergraduate level.
Alexander, R. M. 1991. How dinosaurs ran. Sci.
Am. 264:130–136 (April). Did the Mesozoic
dinosaurs plod sluggishly along or run? The
author suggests they may have been formidable
Alexander, R. M. 1992. The human machine.
New York, Columbia University Press. Describes all kinds of human movement
with the human body viewed as an
engineered machine. Well chosen illustrations. Caplan, A. J. 1984. Cartilage. Sci. Am. 251:84–94
(Oct.). Structure, aging and development of
Hadley, N. F. 1986. The arthropod cuticle. Sci.
Am. 255:104–112 (July). Describes properties
of this complex covering that account
for much of the adaptive success of arthropods.
Leffell, D. J., and D. E. Brash. 1996. Sunlight
and skin cancer. Sci. Am. 275:52–59 (July). Skin cancer that appears in older people
begins with damage received decades earlier.
Many cases are caused by a mutation
in a single gene
McMahon, T. A. 1984. Muscles, reflexes, and
locomotion. Princeton, Princeton University
Press. Comprehensive, ranging from
basic muscle mechanics to coordinated
motion. Although sprinkled with mathematical
models, the text is lucid
Nadel, E. R. 1985. Physiological adaptations to
aerobic training. Am. Sci. 73(4):334–343
(July–Aug.). The studies reported here on
energy conversion in muscle were crucial
to the training of a pilot for the Daedalus
project, the successful world record 119-
kilometer flight of a human-powered aircraft
in April, 1988 (reported in Am. Sci.
Shipman, P., A. Walker, and D. Bichell. 1985.
The human skeleton. Cambridge, Massachusetts,
Harvard University Press. Comprehensive
view of the human skeleton.
Spearman, R. I. C. 1973. The integument: a textbook
on skin biology. Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press. Comparative treatment,
embracing both invertebrates and
Stossel, T. P. 1994. The machinery of cell crawling.
Sci. Am. 271:54–63 (Sept.). Cell crawling
depends on the orderly assembly and
disassembly of an actin protein scaffold.