DNA replication and cell cycle

Content
Chemistry of the Gene 2.  Synthesis, Modification and Repair of DNA
DNA replication: general features 
Semi-conservative DNA replication in E. coli
Semi-conservative replication of chromosomes in eukaryotes
Semi-discontinuous DNA replication
Unidirectional and bidirectional DNA replication
RNA primers in DNA replication
Regulation of DNA replication by anti-sense RNA primer
Prokaryotic DNA polymerases
Eukaryotic DNA polymerases
Replicons for DNA replication
DNA replication in prokaryotes 
Experimental approaches for the study of DNA replication
Initiation of DNA replication
Elongation of DNA chain
Replication fork movement
Termination of DNA replication
DNA replication in eukaryotes 
DNA replication and cell cycle
Replication origins and initiation of DNA replication (cis and trans-acting elements)
Comparison of initiation of DNA replication with transcription initiation
Different steps involved in eukaryotic DNA replication
Synthesis of telomeric DNA by telomerase
Models of DNA replication
Replication fork model
Rolling circle model of DNA replication
Mitochondrial DNA replication and D-loops
RNA directed DNA synthesis (reverse transcription)
DNA modification and DNA restriction
DNA repair
Excision repair systems in E. coli
An SOS repair system in E. coli
DNA repair and genetic diseases in humans
DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
DNA replication and cell cycle
DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is limited to S-phase of the cell cycle (see Physical Basis of Heredity 3.  Genetics, Biochemistry and Dynamics of Cell Division). During the S-phase, not only the DNA should be replicated, but also the associated chromosomal histone proteins should be duplicated. The initiation of DNA replication is a prominent landmark in the cell cycle and is, therefore, an important point for exercising control. Further, while in E. coli and other prokaryotes, a solitary origin for DNA replication is found, in eukaryotes, DNA replication needs to be initiated at multiple origins (upto several thousands) in a coordinated manner, though not identically at all origins. This leads to great variation in the duration of S-phase (S phase is 3.4 minutes in early embryonic cells, but 10 hours in cultured cells in Drosophila melanogaster), even though the rate of DNA synthesis does not differ. It is possible that different specific initiator proteins are used at different origins at different times during S-phase. For instance, in yeast, a protein ABF1 (a transcription factor; see Expression of Gene : Protein Synthesis 2.  Transcription in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) binds many origins, but not all origins of replication. However, a set of origins may be organized in clusters to be used synchronously.