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In Vitro
Culture Techniques : The Biotechnological Principles

Totipotency

Historical background

Requirements for cell and Tissue Cultures

 

A tissues culture laboratory

 

Nutrient media

   

Inorganic chemicals

 

 

Growth hormones

   

Organic constitutents

   

Vitamins

   

Amino acids

Culture of plant materials

 

Explant culture

 

Callus formation and its culture

 

Organogenesis

 

Root culture

 

Shoot culture and micropropagation

 

Cell culture

   

Benefits from cell culture

 

Somatic embryogenesis

 

Somaclonal variation

 

Protoplast culture

   

Isolation

   

Regeneration

 

Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization

   

Fusion products

   

Method of somatic hybridization

 

Anther and pollen Culture

   

Culturing techniques

 

In vitro androgenesis (direct and indirect androgenesis)

 

Mentor pollen technology

 

Embryo culture

 

Embryo rescue

 

Protoplast fusion in fungi



Biotechnological Applications of Plant Cell, Tissues and Organ Cultures

Applications in agricultures

 

Improvement of hybrids

 

Production of encapsulated seeds

 

Production of disease resistant plants

 

Production of stress resistant plants

 

Transfer of nif genes to eukaryotes

 

Future prospects

Applications in horticulture and forestry

 

Micropropagation

 

In Vitro Establishment of Mycorrhiza

Applications in Industry

 

Products (Secondary metabolites) from Cell Culture

   

Cell suspension and biotransformation

   

Factors affecting product yield

 

Secondary Metabolites from Immobilized Plant Cells

 

Future of Plant Tissue Culture Industry in India

Transgenic plants

 

Selectable markers and their use in transformed plants (cat gene, nptll gene, lux gene, lacZ gene)

 

Transgenic plants for crop improvement

   

Insect resistant transgenic plants

   

Herbicide resistant transgenic plants

 

Molecular farming from transgenic plants

   

Immunotherapeutic drugs (edible vaccines, edible antibodies, edible interferon)



Cryobiology

Difficulties in cryopreservation

Methods for cryopreservation

Plant cell bank

Pollen bank

Achievements through cryopreservation



Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Non-Symbiotic N2 fixation

 

Diazotrophy

 

Ecology of diazotrophs

 

Special features of diazotrophs

   

Sites of N2 fixation

   

Nitrogenase and reductants

   

Presence of hydrogenase

   

Self regulatory systems

 

Mechanism of N2 fixation

Symbiotic N2 fixation

 

Establishment of symbiosis

   

Host specificity and root hair curling

   

Infection of root hairs

   

Nodule development

   

Nodule development and maintenance

 

Factors affecting nodule development

 

Mechanism of N2 fixation in root nodules

Genetics of diazotrophs

 

Nod genes

 

Nif genes

   

Nif gene cloning

 

Hup genes




Biofertilizers

Bacteria

 

Bacterization

 

Mass cultivation

 

 

Rhizobium

 

 

Azotobactors, azospirillum and phosphate solubilizers

 

Green Manuring

Blue green algae

 

Algalization

 

 

Mass cultivation of blue-green algae

 

Azolla and biofertilizer

 

 

Mass cultivation of Azolla

Mycorrhizae as biofertilizer

 

Mechanism of Symbiosis

 

Types of Mycorrhizas

 

Methods of Inoculum Production and Inoculation

 

Benefits from Mycorrhizas to Plants

Benefits from biofertilizers

Producers of biofertilizers



Biological Control of Plant Pathogens, Pests and Weeds

Biological control of plant pathogens 

 

Inoculum

 

Historical background

 

Phyllosphere-phylloplane and rhizosphere-rhizoplane regions

 

Antagonism

   

Amensalism (antibiosis and lysis)

   

Competition

   

Predation and parasitism : Mycoparasitism, nematophagy and mycophagy

 

Application of biological control

   

Crop rotation

   

Irrigation

   

Alteration of soil pH

   

Organic amendments

   

Soil treatment with selected chemicals

   

Introduction of antagonists : Seed inoculation, vegetative part inoculation and soil inoculation

   

Use of mycorrhizal fungi

 

Genetic engineering of biocontrol agents

Biological control of insect pests

 

Microbial pesticidies

   

Bacterial, viral and fungal pesticides

   

Viral pesticides

 

 

Mycopesticides

Biological control of weeds

 

Mycoherbicides

 

Insects as biocontrol agents

 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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